SocialInequality and the City
SocialInequality and the City
Socialinequality is the existence of opportunities and reward that are notequal for different social statuses or positions within a society orgroup. It refers to the ways in which people are socially categorizedaccording to characteristics such as ethnicity, class, age, andgender. Relating social inequality to urban poverty, it has highlevels of income inequality between groups. Poverty leads to violentcrimes and illnesses, and it is clear that this can occur due tosocial inequality (Pallagst, 2013).
Inthe United States, many metropolitan areas, including Kansas City arehyper segregated. Hyper segregation is a form of racial segregation,which consists of grouping ethnic geographically. In most cases, thisform of racial discrimination happens in cities where the inhabitantsof the inner city are African Americans, and the neighborhoodssurrounding this inner core are white European American residents. Asa result, blacks experience extreme segregation on all dimensions andthey occupy a unique and distinctly disadvantaged position in the USurban environment. Traditionally, this form of racial discriminationhas been measured by use of dissimilarity index, and, more recently,by the utilization of the P* exposure index. These indices onlymeasure two of five segregation possible dimensions. Hypersegregation was led by some factors such as serious crimes, whichinclude homicide, robbery, and serious assaults (Gotham, 2014).
Onthe other hand, suburbanization has affected urban inequality becauseit leads to violent crimes. People get poor after moving from citiesand engage in crimes such as robbery to satisfy their needs.Suburbanization is to suburbanize a rural area. It is also the growthof areas on the fringes of cities and is one of the leading causes ofthe urban sprawl. Many inhabitants of metropolitan areas work withinthe central urban area and choose to live in dependency communitiescalled suburbs. Mostly they commute to work via vehicle or masstransit. It is one aspect of the most general process of theexpansion and spatial reorganization of urban settlements. Thebuilding of suburbs and transport systems has affected inequality insuburbs and central cities because there is a difference in accessingto public goods and services (Mark Clapson, 2010).
Gotham, K. F. (2014). Race, Real Estate, and Uneven Development, Second Edition: The Kansas City Experience, 1900–2010. SUNY Press.
Mark Clapson, R. H. (2010). Suburbanization in Global Society. Emerald Group Publishing.
Pallagst, K. (2013). Shrinking Cities: International Perspectives and Policy Implications. Routledge.
Xiangming Chen, A. M. (2012). Introduction to Cities: How Place and Space Shape Human Experience. John Wiley & Sons
Ashrinking city, such as Detroit is accompanied by some challengessuch as maintaining infrastructure build to support a largepopulation after experiencing a notable loss of population. A city isreferred as shrinking after it has suffered significant populationloss. The main reason for city shrinkage is emigration. There aresome solutions proposed for dealing with the problems of a shrinkingcity. Such solutions include retirement migration and having publichearings. Retirement migration prevents people from migrating fromone place to another while public hearings enable their issues to beaddressed. As a result, city shrinkage will be dealt with byfollowing these solutions.
Accordingto current population growth projections, India will have 1.66billion people and China will have 1.42 billion people. By contrast,the people of the two regions will remain mostly unchanged for acertain number of people. In future, planners and architects willplay a significant role in remaking of cities by designing cities. Acity might be different in terms of equity, sustainability and thebuilt environment because people will be dedicated to minimization ofthe required inputs of water, food, and energy. They will also bededicated to minimization of required outputs of waste, air and waterpollution.