ROMAN REPUBLIC CIVILIZATION 4
TheRoman era of ancient civilization existed as from 27 BC-612 AD.Thecivilizations that were thriving during this era were linked by anancient world system. Societies such as the Roman Mediterranean, EastAfrica and India attained their greatest levels of materialprosperity, urban existence and cultural achievement then, beforemodern times. The Roman civilization is based on culture as itsbuilding blocks. Culture is a unique system of human habits andcustoms that are acquired through exosomatic processes that are usedas primary means of adapting to the environment. On the other hand,civilization is defined as a uniform society that has certaincharacteristics. The first characteristic defining a civilization isan urban center or a dense settlement (Spielvogel, 2011).
Theseven criteria of civilization
Inthe Roman civilization, urban centers were established in placeswhere agriculture was practiced. This ensured that there were enoughfood surpluses to sustain large populations. There also arosenon-agricultural professions that specialized in activities otherthan food production. These professionals exchanged the results oftheir labor, for example metal ware and pottery, for food produced byfarming populations. Also in existence were elites that were exemptfrom subsistence labor. In the Roman civilization, this groupconsisted of both priestly castes and royal dynasties. The priestsrepresented the citizens to the supreme deity while in the royaldynasties came those who would become leaders in the society(Spielvogel, 2011).
Boththe priests and the royal elites put together the public wealth inthe form of taxes by the leaders, or offerings to the priests. Thisform of wealth is used to finance activities to benefit the commongood. There were buildings constructed where the priests could offersacrifices. These were monumental public buildings where acongregation gathered to give reverence to the Deity. In thisgatherings also, they used literary material to teach their religion,and wrote extra books rather than the 66 books in the bible. Thesebooks are referred as the deuterocanonical books, among them Tobit,Sirach and Baruch. Also in consideration was construction ofpermanent habitations that ensured better living conditions for allresidents (Spielvogel, 2011).
TheRoman Republic transited from being a monarchy to become a republicgovernment, though the transition was not easy. There were threats onevery side that led to the conquering of the Italian Peninsula as awhole using military aid. This took place between 509-264 B.C. Duringthis period, developing the Roman political institutions highlydepended on the social divisions that were in existent in thecommunity. In relation to its position globally, Roman Republicemerged from an ancient urban civilization in the continent of Asia.Its success as a Republic is accredited to application of thecriteria for civilizations.
Spielvogel,J. J. (2011). WesternCivilization: A Brief History.Boston: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.