RESEARCH PARTICIPATION 1
Towarda New Approach to the Study of Personality in Culture
The AmericanJournal of Psychology article is titled "Towards a New Approachto the Study of Personality in Culture." It was research andwritten by Fanny M. Cheung, Frederick Leong, and Fons van de Vijver.The article seeks to review study recent developments in culture andpersonality measurement. The article describes three approaches: eticapproach, emic approach, and a combination of both etic and emicapproaches. The article proposes emic approach as a way ofmethodological rigor combination of the former (epic) approach.
Before the currentstudy, the kind of research had been done on the topic before focusedon the long-standing challenges in the study of "relationshipbetween personalities based on its cultural context" (Cheung etal., 2011). The research study had argued that there is a balancebetween universal searches in structure or type, which influenceshuge variations in personality due to contextual and culturaldifferences. Additionally, the early study looked at the wholepersonality and culture perspective through two dominant ways. Onewas to compare personality measures across culture while the secondwas to ensure there were comparisons.
The type ofresearch design used in the study is the qualitative research design.As a first step, the source of information was acquired from theinterviews. 120 individuals, stratified on socio-economic and sexstatus were asked to explain how their personality affected theirculture (Cheung et al., 2011).From the interviews, a cluster analysisbased on the relatedness of the sub-clusters of the 120 participantsyielded solutions that were comparable in a qualitative analysis. Theinitial findings from the qualitative study used suggested that theuse of a five-factor personality model was well-represented regardingits relational and social aspects.
The participantsin the study were the South African and Chinese, which comprise atotal of 120 participants. The participants are divided into twogroups, South Africans, and Chinese. The two were then labeled aspersonality inventories, and the participants went around carryingout consultations among the researchers and meetings with linguisticexperts (Cheung et al., 2011). They then recorded all the languagesinto nine clusters, for example, those with emotional control,emotional sensitivity, expressiveness, sociability, neurosis,balance, and courage. The studies were distinguishable through thetime taken to carry out the study, the number of inventoriesinvolved, and achievement orientation of the study.
The independent(manipulated) variable in the study are the approaches that studiedpersonality, in particular, cultures. The approaches administered,the time was taken, and the level of the approach represent anindependent variable that is the combination of methodological rigor.O the other hand, the dependent variable in the article is theoutcome that is both the Chinese and South African openness to therelevance of both the cultures towards impacting their personalitylevels.
In the article,what the researchers manipulated in the study affected what theymeasured. That is, one of the results suggested that the qualitativestudy was well-represented by the five-factor personality modelhowever, the South African cluster was found to be more elaborate onrational and social aspects of personality. The second result wasfurther quantitative studies, whereby the instrumental measurementsincluded CPAI-2 confirmed the interpersonal relatedness in both theChinese and South African (Cheung et al., 2011). Therefore, theresults mean that the three approaches, in which the combinedapproach is the emic-etic combination, which means that the Chineseand South African culture provides a platform for personality.
TheBenefits of Playing Video Games
The AmericanJournal of Psychology article is titled "The Benefits of PlayingVideo Games." The article was written by Adam Lobel, IsabelaGranic, and Rutger Engels. From the article, it was observed thatvideo games had become a part of every child`s and adolescent`s lifein the United States with the statistics indicating that over 97% ofthe entire population took part in the games in one way or the other(Granic et al., 2014). The article focuses on the psychologists`research study on the effects of playing video games and itspotential impact: depression, addiction, and violence. The articleconsiders the importance of research but argues that a more balancedperspective is preferable, the one that considers both the benefitsand negatives of playing these video games.
Before the currentstudy, the research done in the study was about the psychologicalimpact of the video games on children. The study had focused on thenegative effects of gaming, which had involved depression,aggression, and addiction in children. The study was based on anexample, which had involved two survey studies in both theNetherlands and the United States.
The article used aqualitative research design. The use of qualitative research designwas evidenced by the "World of Warcraft," which involved astudy of over 12 million video game players (Granic et al., 2014). Itwas noted that they regularly logged on their games while exploringcomplex and exchanging vistas. The use of qualitative design alsofocused on cognitive research, which demonstrated some advantagesthrough measurable changes in efficiency and neural processing.Additionally, in the article`s qualitative research on theconversations between the children, which shows these children wereable to use the video plays in their lives to master emotionalmastery. Whereas both the adolescents and adults used self-disclosureto discuss directly some of their issues, the children were able toshow pretend-based narratives.
The participantsin the study mostly involve the children and a few adults. Theauthors used the children because of the large number of theminvolved in video games. The children were used because of the soundimpact, either positively or negatively, on the beneficial effects ofthe video games. The children were made to participate in the studythrough playing video games for a period (Granic et al., 2014). Theparticipants between studies were distinguished based on the eitherthe positive or negative studies.
The independent(manipulated) variable in the article involves the integration ofinsights from the positive, developmental, and social psychologicalinput. The variable proposes on the participants` mechanism by whichthe video games maybe foster the real-world benefits of psychology(Granic et al., 2014). The dependent (measured) variable, on theother hand, is the reaction from the participants` involvement fromplaying the video games. The dependent variable includes the strongrationale, which details mental research benefits from playing videogames. The difference from the studies includes the call forintervention to test the positives, which comes from gaming.
The researchers`manipulation of the study affects what was measured following theeventual findings of the study. The results of the study indicatedthat apart from the minimal challenges, playing video games resultin, but not limited to, emotional, sociological, motivational, andcognitive benefits (Granic et al., 2014). The results meant that themany hours invested in gaming also means that it provides differencesin qualitative experiences than on other conventional games.Additionally, the results meant that the time and space will likelyhold a whole new level of beneficial effects and that the gamespromote well-being, which include prevention and treatment of themental problems.
Intelligence:New Findings and Theoretical Developments
The article istitled "Intelligence: New Findings and Theoretical Developments"published in the American Journal of Psychology, written by RichardNisbett, William Dickens, James Flynn, Clancy Blair, Joshua Aronson,Diane Halpern, and Eric Turkheimer. The article is a review of thefindings and other theoretical developments in the intelligencefield. It also focuses on heritability, of the IQ, geneticpolymorphisms, and biological underpinnings. Others involvedcrystallized and fluid IQ and environmental importance of IQ.
Before the currentstudy, the past research studies had focused on the use of IQ teststo measure different impacts it had on individuals and the society asa whole (Nisbett et al., 2012). The studied paid more attention tothe accurate measurement of IQ predictor over school and achievementof a person`s career. It was noted that IQ was influenced by certainenvironment factors. It dictated that the IQ`s racial differenceswere because, in the least part, moved towards the genetics had onthe modest effect of the environment.
The researchdesign used in the study is qualitative. The measurement of IQ is oneof the achievements of psychology, which can only be achieved throughqualitatively examining the bulk of evidence, which is pertinent tothe existence of intelligence (Nisbett et al., 2012). The qualitativeresearch design focused on finding the relevance identified in thefirst factor from the participants` IQ subtests. Additionally, it wasdone by placing great importance on the differences between IQ and"g" to predict the life outcomes and differences in a groupsetting.
The participantsinvolved in the study are family members whose setting is based ontheir heritability interaction with other members of the family. Thestudy was carried out by identifying a family with a rich heritage ofinteraction, but with mixed reactions. Nisbett et al. (2012) forexample, used the Hawaii family to demonstrate in the study thatthere were no differences between the parent and child correlation IQtest scores. The combination was also noted to be a combination ofshared environmental and genetic factors.
The independent(manipulated) variable used in the article is the IQ tests that aredone on the participants. The tests are meant for the correlation andbetter understanding of the expectations from such texts (Nisbett etal., 2012). The tests were also done on the family in respect tochances of consequences, additional evidence, and the correlationbetween their biological and genetic constitution. The variable wasmeant to reveal their contribution and the level of their IQ.
The dependent(measured) variable from the article was the mixed reactionscollected from the tests on the family. The variable indicated thatthe typical heritability interaction was part of the family`s IQ,which appears for reasonable conclusion of the family`s cognitiveability to attenuate among findings. In addition, such variationsfrom the variable were also from the environment created by theHawaii family about their gene constitution.
What theresearchers manipulated affected what was measured, which means theultimate results found for the variables indicated that the IQ testscarried out effectively during the infant stage of every child in thefamily setting will be marked (Nisbett et al., 2012). The evidencewill be identified through academic achievement of the child, andthus realized through his or her adulthood. The family tests are alsoa reflection of countries where they are likely to gain positively asopposed to the developing countries. The biological and socializationfactors also make up the ultimate findings. The results mean thatintelligence and IQ are affected or influenced by a lot of factors,for example, biological, social, and environmental factors. Thesefactors explain the differences in IQ across regions.
Cheung, F. M., van, V. F. J., & Leong, F. T. (2011). Toward a newapproach to the study of personality in culture. The AmericanPsychologist, 66, 7, 593-603. Retrieved fromhttp://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/amp-66-7-593.pdf
Granic, I, Lobel, A, & Rutger C. Engels, M. (2014). The benefitsof Playing Video Games. America Journal of Psychology, 69 (1)66-78 Retrieved fromhttp://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/amp-a0034857.pdf
Nisbett, R., Blair, C., Aronson, J., Dickens, W., Flynn, J., Halpern,D., F., Turkheimer, Eric. (2012). Intelligence: New Findings andTheoretical Developments. American Journal of Psychology, 67(2), 130-159 Retrieved fromhttp://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/amp-67-2-130.pdf