Pulmonary Function Testing

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PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTING 3

PulmonaryFunction Testing

TheGlobalInitiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease(GOLD) developed guidelines meant to assist in the diagnosis,management, and prevention of COPD. The guidelines suggest that anyindividual who shows signs of dyspnea, chronic cough should beurgently put on diagnosis (Global Initiative for Chronic ObstructiveLung Disease, 2011). Some of the proposed methods includespirometric, screening, and pharmacological treatment, among othersdepending on the nature of the disease. Adoption good habits such asabstinence from smoking and observing the quality of air have shownpositive results in the prevention of COPD. Pulmonary rehabilitationis also another proposed method that would help in lessening thesymptoms. Further, continuous administration of oxygen for patientswith chronic respiratory failure is essential to enhance survival.The method ensures that the patient has access to quality as well asimproves the survival rates.

Acutebronchospasmis a form asthma attack where the air pathway is blocked partially.It is often caused by inflammation of the muscles around the airtubes hence making it hard to breathe (Buttaro,Trybulski, Polgar Bailey, &amp Sandberg-Cook, 2013).Screening spirometry is an effective diagnosis method for patientswith dyspnea. Besides screening, smoking cessation helps a patientquit smoking (American Lung Association, n.d.). The method has shown25 percent quit rates. Additionally, NicotineReplacement Productssuch as inhaler and nicotine gum increases the chances of long-termquitting. In the management of COPD, it is important to reduce therisk factors such as smoking (WebMD, 2012). Drugs such as Influenzavaccines and corticosteroids can be used for the long-term managementof the disease. The guidelines also recommend routine activities suchas physical exercises can help reduce fatigue and dyspnea. Forshort-term management, it is appropriate that the patient undergotherapy and regular screening. The approach ensures that the symptomsand the risks factors are reduced drastically.

References

Buttaro,T. M., Trybulski, J., Polgar Bailey, P., &amp Sandberg-Cook, J.(2013). Primary care: A collaborative practice (4th ed.). St. Louis,MO: Mosby.

GlobalInitiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. (2011). At-a-glanceoutpatient management reference for chronic obstructive pulmonarydisease (COPD). Retrieved fromhttp://www.goldcopd.org/uploads/users/files/GOLD_AtAGlance_2011_Jan18.pdf

AmericanLung Association. (n.d.). Retrieved November 28, 2012, fromhttp://www.lung.org

WebMD.(2012). Medscape. Retrieved from http://www.medscape.com/

Pulmonary Function Testing

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TESTING FOR CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE 4

PulmonaryFunction Testing

Introduction:The case study

Thefollowing case study involves a 45 aged patient with difficulties inbreathing. Besides, the patient complained of fatigue that had lastedfor a few months. However, the patient clarifies that he does notexperience chest pain nor chest tightness. The past medical historyof the patient reveals a smoking habit of ten cigarettes per day fora period of twenty years. (WebMD, 2012).

Thepatient was previously diagnosed with breast cancer. Consequently, hehas been using an albuterol inhaler for the past one year. Inaddition, he was under medication for hypertension for 23 years andthat the prescribed daily medication included propanol 160 mg per dayand hydrochlorothiazide 25mg. A physical examination of the lungsindicated an expanded chest. Besides, there was a tympani tic,withdrawn inhalation sounds and indistinct wheezes. The patient’sheart beat was normal (WebMD, 2012).

COPDguidelines for diagnosis and potential diagnosis for the patient.

Thechronic obstructive pulmonary disease is diagnosed mostly incigarette smoking patients. Other risk factors include occupationaland environmental exposures that account for one in six cases ofCOPD. The patient is evaluated on various factors such as a chroniccough, progressive dyspnea, and increased production of sputum.

COPDdiagnosis, management, and prevention

First,it is important to avoid the misdiagnosis of Asthma that is the mostoften confused disease with COPD. Besides, diagnosis is based onclinical suspicion and confirmation of spirometry. The firstindicator of the disease includes a capacity ratio (FEV1/FVC) ofbelow 80%. (FEV1/FVC) refers to the Forced Expiratory Volume in onesecond/ Forced Vital Capacity ratio respectively. Specifically, thedisease is diagnosed when the ratio appears as irreversible after theadministration of an inhaled bronchodilator (American LungAssociation, n.d.). After the diagnosis, it is imperative to conducta single quantitative test for alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency. Second,there is the need to perform symptomatology and spirometry tests.They are carried out to determine the severity of the disease forpatients diagnosed with COPD but remain symptomatic after abronchodilator therapy (American Lung Association, n.d.).

Executionof the tactics in a medical setting.

Spirometryis the most useful diagnostic test for the disease. The aim is toconfirm the airflow limitations in patients with dyspnoea, chroniccoughs or sputum emission. Besides, spirometry ensures accuratediagnosis and proposes the appropriate therapy. Non-pharmacologicaltherapies are applied to ensure smoking cessation that lowers therate of lung infections (American Lung Association, n.d.).

Diagnosisof COPD on the patient.

Officespirometry diagnosis tests indicated a very serious obstruction. Thetests indicated that FEV1 was 25%. The results are less than the 30%threshold for severe COPD. Besides, the FEV1 level remained constantto that obtained before the administration of the bronchodilator. Therestrictive lung disease was diagnosed by the Forced Vital Capacity(FVC). Specifically, the (FVC) was lower than 50% of the predictionand indicated severe lung disease (WebMD, 2012).

Acomparison of pulmonary function test to COPD procedures

Similarto COPD findings, the pulmonary test results indicated low levels ofFVC and FEV1. The result of FEV1/ FVC was 0.68 that is below thelimit of the normal 80% anticipated for the patient. The consistentlow values indicated airflow obstruction for FVC and FEV1. Thepatients FEV1 were 43% that indicates a severe airflow obstruction.Besides, the FVC improved by 25% to 0.81 L while the FEV1 improved by30% to 0.51L after the introduction of a bronchodilator (WebMD,2012).

Conclusion

Treatmentand management.

Firstis the need for influenza and pneumococcal vaccination to reduce therisks of infection. Second, pulmonary rehabilitation is conducted toimprove the patient’s quality of life, enhance exercise toleranceand lower the frequency of hospitalization. Third, there is need toadminister pharmacological therapies to ensure long actingbronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids. The treatment reducesdyspnea, improves the quality of life as well as lung function.Besides, there is a reduction in the risk of exacerbations andsystemic corticosteroids antibiotics. It also reduces the symptoms,truncates the time to recovery and the risk for relapse (GlobalInitiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, 2011).

References

Buttaro,T. M., Trybulski, J., Polgar Bailey, P., &amp Sandberg-Cook, J.(2013). Primary care: A collaborative practice (4th ed.). St. Louis,MO: Mosby.

GlobalInitiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. (2011). At-a-glanceoutpatient management reference for chronic obstructive pulmonarydisease (COPD). Retrieved fromhttp://www.goldcopd.org/uploads/users/files/GOLD_AtAGlance_2011_Jan18.pdf

AmericanLung Association. (n.d.). Retrieved November 28, 2012, fromhttp://www.lung.org

WebMD.(2012). Medscape. Retrieved from http://www.medscape.com/

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