Psychoanalytic theory

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Psychoanalytictheory

Psychoanalytictheory

Theissue of crime and antisocial behaviors among individuals has beenstudies extensively by psychologists and sociologists. Psychologicaland biosocial theories have been developed to help criminologistslink between characteristics of individuals and criminal behaviors. has been used to explain how mental processesinteract with the social environment to explain criminal behaviors.While sociological theories focus on how the social environmentsinfluence or explain criminal behaviors, psychoanalytic theory ismore concerned about aggressive behaviors or antisocial behavior andtheir association with mental processes, learning and personality(Vito &amp Maahs, 2012).can be described asa theory of the unconscious mind. The Freudian theory argues that theconscious and unconscious mind has a role to play in criminalbehavior. This is very critical for criminologist in understandingwhy individuals commit crimes and some of the psychological treatmentthat can be used to rehabilitate criminals. For example, if theunconscious thoughts and motivations can be converted into consciousthoughts, the individual will be less likely to commit crimes. Thebasic reason why psychoanalytic theory is significant in criminologyis the fact that it focuses on the offender.

Theproposal by Sigmund Freud that antisocial behaviors are as a resultof the unconscious mind is the foundation of psychoanalytic theory ofcriminology. The forces acting within an individual’s mind resultsinto criminal behaviors. According to Freud, the experiences of anindividual during childhood had a significant role in the developmentof the unconscious and conscious mind in adults. The id, ego andsuperego, how they develop and their influence on decisions made anindividual are the foundation of psychoanalytical theory of crime(Elliott, 2015). While the id is the unconscious and primitive partof the mind, the ego is partly conscious and mediates between theunrealistic demands of the id. The id part of the mind is a naturalinstinct that makes individual aggressive and antisocial. It can bedescribed as the impulsive psyche in an individual that directlyrespond to human instincts. In a new born, the behaviors are directlyinfluenced by the id which demands for immediate gratification ofphysical pleasures. Thus, if the id is in control, an individual willtake actions that result into pleasure irrespective of theconsequence. The immediate gratification of pleasure principle canbe used to explain criminal behaviors (Elliott, 2015).

Onthe other hand, the ego is part of the id that can be influenced bythe social environment. The interactions between the id and thesocial environment lead to the development of ego, which is partiallyconscious. The ego introduces reasoning in the thinking process.Although the mind works towards the gratification of the physicalpleasures, it finds realistic and reasonable ways through which thepleasures can be satisfied. This introduces social norms, values, andrules in the reasoning process. At a young age, the id is thedominant part of the mind because the young child is unaware of thesocial realities. As the individual learns how to live harmoniouslyin the society, the ego develops. This enables the individuals toconsider rules in the society before taking an action (Elliott,2015).

Thesuper ego plays a more important role in explaining criminalbehaviors in the society. The superego incorporates the lessonslearnt from parents and close associates during childhood developmentwith the values and rules learnt in the society. The role of superegoin an individual’s behavior is to balance between the role of theconscious and unconscious mind. This is by controlling the impulsesgenerated by the id and putting into consideration what is forbiddenin the society. Thus, the superego acts by persuading the ego toconsider actions that are morally acceptable rather than aiming atgratification of pleasures (Elliott, 2015).

AlthoughSigmoid Freud did not directly theorize about crime in the society,his thoughts about how mental processes influence behaviors has beenadopted by other psychoanalytic theorists to explain criminalbehaviors. The theory has been the basis of the theory that viewscriminals as individual’s who are unable to control theirimpulsive. It has also been used to explain the relationship betweenchildren upbringing and development of criminal behavior (Vito &ampMaahs, 2012). For example, individuals who were brought up indysfunctional societies or stressful environment are more likely todevelop criminal behaviors since the circumstances damaged or led topoor development of ego and superego. This makes the individuals lesslikely to put into consideration the social values and morality inmaking decisions. The ego and superego is also responsible for thefeeling of shame and regret when an individual is involved inantisocial behavior. This has been used by criminologist whereextreme cases of poorly developed ego and superego results intoinability of individuals to sympathize with victims of violent crimes(O`Grady, 2011).

Inaddition to understanding criminal behaviors, psychoanalytic theoryplays an important role in the development of interventions andpolicies in criminology. For example, although probation is based onsociological understanding of crime, psychoanalytic theory gives adeeper understanding of how probation works. Probation enables theindividual to learn the social values and morality which enhances theego and superego role in decision making processes. This means thatrehabilitation of an individual aims at making the offender consciousabout his actions and their implications (Vito &amp Maahs, 2012).

References

Elliott,A. (2015). Psychoanalytictheory: an introduction.London: Palgrave/Macmillan Education.

O`Grady,W. (2011). Crimein Canadian Context(2nd edition). Don Mills: Oxford University Press.

Vito,G. &amp Maahs, J. (2012). Criminology:theory, research, and policy.Sudbury, Mass.: Jones &amp Bartlett Learning.

Psychoanalytic theory

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Psychoanalytictheory

Psychoanalytictheory

SigmundFreund is considered the greatest human behavior scientists andscholar in history. He proposed the psychoanalytic theory that hasbeen used by psychologists and criminologists in the study andexplanation of human behavior. The fundamental principle ofpsychoanalytic theory is based on Freund proposal that human behavioris as a result of interaction between the three parts of the humanmind. The three parts are id, ego and super ego (Elliott, 2015).Another important principle that defines Freudian theory is the roleof unconscious and conscious mind in influencing personality andbehavior. The interaction between the three part of a human mindprogress through different stages of human development, resultinginto five distinct psychosexual stages. Although Freud theory hasbeen criticized for putting more emphasizes on sexuality as the maindriver of human behavior and thus personality development, it is thefoundation of numerous psychological thoughts in the modern society(Vito &amp Maahs, 2012).

Themain rationale of psychoanalytic theory is that all human behaviorsare as result of interaction between id, ego and superego in thehuman mind. The efforts of an individual to balance the desires ofthe three parts of the human mind as well as conflicts determines howan individual behaves and respond to different aspects of the sociallife. The id is the primitive part of the mind and desires theimmediate fulfillment of physical needs. It is entirely located inthe unconscious part of individual thoughts. For example, when anindividual passes a stranger eating a delicious and mouth wateringice cream or cake, the id part would probably snatch the ice cream orcake. This part of the mind does not know whether this is wrong,immoral or it belong to someone else. It is concern with thegratification of the physical desires (Elliott, 2015).

Thesuperego part of the mind is both conscious and unconscious. Itrecognizes morality and rules within a society. Superego part of themind develops from an early age as the child learns the social andcultural values and rules within the society. The super ego part ofthe mind is what reminds an individual that an action is acceptableor unacceptable. For example, the superego would not snatch the cakeor ice cream because it belongs to someone else or it is immoral.However, it is important to note that both superego and id worktogether in an individual mind to produce a particular behavior.Therefore, if the superego concerns override the id desires, theindividual will exhibit good behavior. Otherwise, a stronger id wouldoverride the superego resulting into undesirable behavior. As aresult of superego concern, the individual will feel guilty or beashamed of the action due to the role of the conscience (Elliott,2015).

Incontrast to superego and id, the ego part of the mind is the rationalpart of the human mind. It is less primitive when compared to the idand relatively more conscious when compared to the superego. Freundspent a lot of time explaining the ego part of the mind and how itcontributes to the development of personality and behaviors. The egocan be defined the part of the mind that controls the conflictbetween the desires of the id and the concerns of the superego(Elliott, 2015). For example, in the cake or ice cream scenario, theego will intervene in the conflict leading a decision to borrow thecake or buy your own cake or ice cream. Nonetheless the unconsciousid will be frustrated by the fact that the gratification of thedesires will wait.

Accordingto psychoanalytic theory, individuals commit crimes and otherantisocial and immoral behaviors due to psychological reasons. Due tothe id part of the human mind that pushes individuals to actselfishly, human psychoanalytic theory argues that humans areinherently antisocial. However, an individual learns the rules andvalues of the society, which creates a superego to suppress the id.While the superego persuades an individual to act morally andresponsibly, the id tells the individual to do the wrong things tosatisfy physical desires. However, the theory argues that crime isnot as a result of the id being out of control. Instead,psychoanalytic theory argues that when there is something wrong withthe ego or superego, the individual is likely to commit a crime orhave antisocial behaviors. This is mainly because the id part of themind is in the unconscious thought while ego and superego occur inboth conscious and unconscious thoughts (O`Grady, 2011). For example,if the ego ignores the concerns of the superego, an individual willfollow the desires of the id. The three part of the mind are changesduring childhood development. As a result, factors that leads toabsence or weak ego or weak superego increase the likelihood of anindividual committing crime. For example, neglect, abuse, andmiserable life in childhood result into frustration and aggravation,thus less developed ego and superego. This increases the likelihoodof the individual developing criminal behaviors (Barkan, 2015).

Comparisonwith other criminology theories

Someof the most famous sociological and psychological theories thatexplain criminal behavior are comparable to psychoanalytic theory.The social strain theory, which was developed by Robert Merton statesthat social structures that exists in the society put pressure onindividuals to commit crimes. The strains in the society includestructures that influence how individuals perceive their needs anddesires. For example, in the United States, the society is saturated,and therefore strained with the desires and demands for prosperityand opportunities in what is commonly referred to as the Americandream. These dreams act as psychological motivation for people tocommit crimes. Due to inequalities in the society limits theabilities of majority of the members of the society from achievingthese goals (O`Grady, 2011). To achieve these dreams, they resultinto criminal activities. The strain theory has some similaritieswith the psychoanalytic theory of crime. Although the strain theorydoes not have the same fundamental principles as the Freudian theory,there is an agreement that psychological factors have a role to playin criminal activities. Another similarity is the role of desires incriminal activities. In both theories, the physical desires competewith social values and morality (O`Grady, 2011).

Anothercriminology theory that can compare to the psychoanalytic theory isthe rational choice theory. The theory is based on utilitarianprinciples ethics, which argues that the morality of an action isdependent on the utility derived from the action. This means that ifan action results into suffering, it is immoral or illegal. Therational choice theory of crime argues that individuals make rationaldecisions to commit a crime (Barkan, 2015). This means thatpunishment and shame associated with illegal or antisocial criminalactivities can deter individuals from committing crimes. Rationalchoice theorists acknowledge that although people tend to chose moraland legal actions due to constrains in the society, some peoplerationally chose illegal actions because they are more beneficial. Anindividual can also make a rational decision to commit a particularcrime depending on the probability of punishment or the currentopportunities. Thus, the theory proposes that crime can be preventedby increasing the cost and risk associated with committing a crime bytarget hardening (Gul, 2009). The basic assumptions of the rationalchoice theory are similar to some of the basic principles of thepsychoanalytic theory. Both theories propose that the mind and thethinking process has role to play in criminal activity. Although therational choice theory propose struggles in the thought to commit ornot to commit crime, similar to the struggle between the three partsof the mind identified by Freud. However the rational choice theoryis based on calculation of the ends and the means whilepsychoanalytic theory involves concerns about social and culturalvalues (O`Grady, 2011).

Thesocial strain theory and rational choice theory are some of the mostcommon sociological theories that explain criminal activities. Theyare widely studies and referred to by scholars and criminologists inan attempt to explain criminal behaviors. However, it is important tonote that these theories have some limitations and shortcomings.Despite this, the two theories they can fairly explain almost allcriminal activities. Additionally, they are more comparable to othersociological and psychological theories of crime due to theirreasonable assumptions.

References

Barkan,S. (2015). Criminology:a sociological understanding.Boston: Pearson.

Elliott,A. (2015). Psychoanalytictheory: an introduction.London: Palgrave/Macmillan Education.

Gul,S. (2009). “An evaluation of rational choice theory incriminology”. Sociologyand applied science,4(8), 36-44.

O`Grady,W. (2011). Crimein Canadian Context(2nd edition). Don Mills: Oxford University Press.

Vito,G. &amp Maahs, J. (2012). Criminology:theory, research, and policy.Sudbury, Mass.: Jones &amp Bartlett Learning.

Psychoanalytic Theory

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PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY 4

PsychoanalyticTheory

PsychoanalyticTheory

Psychoanalytictheory use target criteria for sorting and measuring conduct. Oneconceivable confirmation of this is a few quality speculations wereproduced freely of one another when component examination wasutilized to close a particular arrangement of characteristics. Whilebuilding up their speculations freely of one another, attributescholars frequently landed at a comparable arrangement ofcharacteristics. Another quality of the Psychoanalytic theory is thatit considers both nature and sustain. This is quality in light of thefact that it underlines the significance of both. A case of this isFreud`s supposition of adolescence encounters concentrated on sustainthough the Ego, ID and super self-image concentrated on nature.

Oneshortcoming of the Psychoanalytic theory is that it is deterministic.This is a shortcoming on the grounds that it proposes that conduct ispre-decided and individuals don`t have choice. A sample of this isthe psychosexual stages. The psychoanalytic theory is unfalsifiable1.This is a shortcoming on the grounds that the suspicions can`t belogically measured or demonstrated off-base. A case of this is theway to go of the psyche being split into three sections.

Anotherweakness of psychoanalytic theories is that they require individualperceptions or subjective self-reports to quantify. Self-reportmeasures require that an individual be sufficiently thoughtful tocomprehend their own conduct. Individual perception measures requirethat an individual sufficiently invest energy watching another personin various circumstances to have the capacity to give a preciseevaluation of their practices. Both of these measures are subjectiveand can fall prey to onlooker inclination and different types oferror. Another feedback is that psychoanalytic hypothesis does notclarify why an individual carries on certainly2.Characteristic speculations give data about individuals and aboutwhich qualities cause which practices in any case, there is no signconcerning why these attributes connect in the way that they do.

Bibliography

Eagleton,Terry, &quotPsychoanalysis,&quot in LiteracyTheory: An Introduction,Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1983.

1 Terry Eagleton , &quotPsychoanalysis,&quot in Literacy Theory: An Introduction, (Oxford: Basil Blackwell), 1983.

2 Terry Eagleton , &quotPsychoanalysis,&quot in Literacy Theory: An Introduction, (Oxford: Basil Blackwell), 1983.

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