Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Variables in the Study

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1.0 Variables in the Study on PTSD

1.1 Independent

The main variable of the study is anger, which is an independentvariable. The research intends to determine various factors thatinfluence anger disposition among post-war military veterans. In thisregards, anger disposition is the main variable under hypothesistesting. The research will also test PTSD symptoms as the projectsindependent variables looking into psychological distress todetermine which psychological factors influence anger. In addition,the study will measure trauma as one of the PTSD symptoms. Moodsdisorders will be analyzed as an important factor and variable in thestudy. The risk of harming self and others and aggressive behavior aseffects of anger will form part of the independent variables in thestudy. The independent variables in the study provide the mostsubstantial outlook for the research.

1.2 Dependent

Impairments among victims, which include psychological and physical,shall form the study’s dependent variables. These affect thedependent variables in various ways. The research will manipulatethese variables to analyze their effect on the veterans’ angercharacteristics. These include the physical well-being of theworkplace and the veterans’ family relationships. In this research,the veterans’ psychological and physical well-being can be varied.

1.3 Extraneous

Military service and demographic of the veterans to be studied willform a parallel analysis for the study, which on their own contributedifferently to veterans’ anger issues. This will provide adescription of possible conditions that the veterans may have beenexposed to during their service. Combat exposure is also a criticalvariable to analyze as it is regarded as one of the biggest cause ofPTSD and MDD among veterans. Attachment patterns will also beanalyzed separately alongside combat exposure to analyzing theenvironments the military personnel were being exposed to and howthey may have contributed to PTSD symptoms especially anger issues.The veterans’ spiritual background and beliefs will also be used asan extraneous variable in the research to provide a comparison ofpsychological factors resulting to anger issues (Gonzalez, Novaco,Reger, &amp Gahm, 2015).


2.1 Selection threat

The main selection threat in choosing the variables and the subjectsin the analysis is the likeliness of biases that may emerge from theprocess to be used in comparing different groups of data.Randomizations can, however, be used to prevent selection threat inthe study. However, if the sample size to be used remains small, theusing random selection may result in Simpson paradox situation. Thisinvolves a situation where a trend is seen in statistics in differentgroups but when the groups are combined, the trend disappears.

2.2 Statistical regression threat

The main statistical regression threat also referred to as theregression to the mean can be caused when samples that are selectedare based on extreme scores depending on the type of measure beingused. Picking on extreme characteristics and populating them togethersuch as using one variable and using extreme characteristics canresult in a statistical regression in the study.

2.3 Subject mortality threat

In the analysis process, the possibility of subjects or variablesbeing lost along the way can easily result in experimental mortality,which is also regarded as subject mortality. The result that can beattained from specimen or samples of respondents that participatepartially and those who are engaged fully in the study will highlyvary. As such, the samples attained from respondents form thesubstantial constituent for subject mortality threat.

2.4 Testing threat

When the first test is undertaken, a second test is taken to provideevident viability of the first test. However, a third test is takento verify the second test. Undertaking pretest in the study mayeither increase or decrease the subject’s responsiveness in thevariable being tested. In this study, the third and second testundertaken illustrate the feasibility and dependability of thevariables tested.

2.4.1Test-retest reliability

Pretest tests are commonly reliably in studies that use smallsamples. In this study, pretesting subsequent tests were used toensure control is maintained in the analysis process. This is,however, common when undertaking identical pretests and posttests.Respondents can easily learn to provide the perceived right answersif frequently engaged in a research project.

2.4.2 Evaluation of the validity The degree of control usedin the study effectively provided the required degree of control. Thedegree of control that was excreted on different variables determinedthe level of validity in the study. Controlling potential confoundingvariables reduced the risk of having to develop alternative ways totreat the results, which may compromise the confidence that theeffects are related to independent variables. Pretest can easilyaffect the outcomes of the second tests due to the vulnerable natureof social characteristic. Reactive effects easily occur when thetesting process result to changes in the behavior of the respondentshence requiring non-reactive measures to be used. As such, theevaluated validity provided the magnitude of success for the testsand research.


Gonzalez, O., Novaco, R., Reger, M., &amp Gahm, G. (2015). Angerintensification with combat-related PTSD and Depression comorbidity.Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy,1-9. doi:10.1037

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