Planning Models

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Itis estimated that smoke from tobacco contains over seven thousandcompounds, some of which have been confirmed to cause cancer. As aresult, tobacco smoking has been identified as a leading cause ofpreventable deaths in the modern society. Therefore, in addition tobeing a social problem, smoking is one of the most important publichealth concerns in the modern health care systems (Giovino, 2012).Nicotine in tobacco is a very addictive drug. Quitting smoking afterseveral years of smoking is not an easy undertaking. It is aprolonged and difficult process that requires a lot of social supportand professional support as well as personal sacrifice and commitment(Rigotti, 2012). A community program can be designed to helpindividuals in the community to quit smoking. PRECEDE-PRECEEDplanning and education models can be used in the diagnosis of lungcancer, the most important challenge associated with tobacco smoking.The first phase will involve the diagnosis of the various aspects ofthe problem. The second phase is more critical in the smokingcessation program. It would involve the implementation of theprogram, evaluation of the process, evaluation of the impact andevaluation of the program outcome. It involves evaluation of theprocesses as the program is being implemented, using intermediategoals and objectives to determine the impacts at different stages andevaluation of the overall objectives (Glanz, 2008). The PERT chart ofthe program is based on the PRECEED model.


Identify smokers in the community

Identify the patient tobacco use

Urge the patient to quit smoking

Current smokers

Past smokers

Provide more information of negative effects of smoking

Gauge the willingness of the patient to quit smoking

Not willing


Help the individual towards quit attempt

Follow ups

Social support, nicotine replacement therapy and counseling


Giovino,G. A. (2012). &quotTobacco use in 3 billion individuals from 16countries: an analysis of nationally representative cross-sectionalhousehold surveys.” Lancet380 (9842): 668–79.

Glanz, al (2008). HealthBehavior and Health Education: Theory, Research and Practice.San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Rigotti,N. A. (2012). &quotStrategies to help a smoker who is struggling toquit&quot. JAMA308 (15): 1573–1580.

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