ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY AND BEHAVIOUR 1
Organizational Theory And Behavior
The most significant change that my family will face is settling downin the new town as we prepare to begin working in the factory. Giventhat it is in the 1830s, we will have to look for a new place, whichwill be convenient for every member of the family. Within theorganizational theory, the scientific management concept known asTaylorism has the principle of finding the best way to perform tasks(Ivancevich, Konopaske, & Matteson, 2013). The main tasks will bebalancing between settling in the new town and working in a newsetting. This calls for the need to study the decision-makingapproach as outlined in the organizational theory and management. Theapproach focuses on the importance of making decisions, which helpsindividuals to balance goal-oriented behavior, and behavior that isnot focused on goal achievement. This is in the realization of thefact that this period (the 1830s) falls within the industrialrevolution era, which calls for choosing alternatives that satisfyboth the individual’s personal lives and organizational engagement.
Inthis organization, it is apparent that the employees were reacting tothe simulation of being observed. The first conclusion of theHawthorne studies was that work-groups norms affect productivity(Ivancevich et al., 2013). The Hawthorn researchers made a systematicdescription and interpretation of this observation, which they usedto explain the productivity of the employees. The second humanbehavior conclusion that was made was that informal organizationaffects the productivity of the human resource. In this regard, therelationship between the employees and the management influencesproductivity. Thirdly, the study concluded that the workplace is asocial system, which is made up of parts that depend on each other.Another significant conclusion was that the employees’ abilitiesare not direct predictors of their performance, as the latter isinfluenced by social factors such as job motivation and satisfaction.
Organizational success draws heavily from organizational culture. Atthe same time, the organization’s employees and management have tofunction as a unit to achieve organizational objectives. As the CEO,I would create a strong organizational culture by focusing on threemain elements. These are transparency, empowerment, andcommunication. Through transparency, I would encourage creativity,which is a key component of innovation (Ivancevich et al., 2013).This has a direct impact on empowerment of the individuals. Embracingopen communication has also been identified as a key organizationalculture tool in modern organizations. It is almost impractical toeliminate culture without replacing it with something else. This isbecause human psychology is influenced by tradition, which isequivalent to organizational culture. Moreover, organizationalculture comprises of the values that determine the internalenvironment of an organization, and intrinsically, every organizationmust have its unique values and behaviors that define it.
Inbusiness and human resource management, what is in play in thisparticular case is system-oriented management. In this type ofmanagement, the managers are more concerned with design andachievement of organizational objectives (Ivancevich et al., 2013).Among the areas of focus of the manager’s approach are directsolutions, which are time-bound and limited to cost. In this type ofmanagement, the employees are thought of robots, and their input ispredictable and fixed. The main recommendation that I would make tothe manager is to use motivation techniques that boost the morale ofthe employees. By applying these techniques, the manager will be in aposition to intrinsically and extrinsically reward them. This willinclude, but not limited to, rewarding the employees for goodperformance and promoting them to upper levels. There is apossibility of having a good manager but a poor leader. A goodmanager helps the organization to achieve its objectives while a goodleader helps the employees to achieve personal ambitions.
Diversity is key to organizational success. However, there arebehaviors that disregard diversity in organizations. These includestereotyping, prejudice and scapegoating. Stereotyping, in humanbehavior perspective, is the tendency of generalizing persons orgroups (Ivancevich et al., 2013). They are often because of theunwillingness to gather sufficient information to separate a personfrom perceived judgments. On the other hand, prejudice is forming anopinion that is not based on reason. In an organization, someemployees have certain prejudices about members of people that do notbelong to their groups. This can be against members of a differentreligion on coming from a certain geographical area. Finally,scapegoating is blaming people for others’ failures. Most victimsof organization-based scapegoating are junior workers or workers fromthe weaker sex. The major relationship between scapegoating,prejudice and stereotyping is that the perpetrators end up notgetting any better at their work while the victims may lose moraleand eventually lower their productivity. Moreover, they are allagainst the principle of organizational diversity.
The psychological contract, in organizational theory and behavior,describes the relationship between the employees and the management.This relationship is majorly based on mutual expectations regardinginputs and outputs. While it is mostly viewed from the perspective ofthe management, organizational theorists recommend that it be viewedfrom both sides. The basic tenets of the theory are how the employeeis treated by the management and their input to work. Theexpectations from me as a manager and my subordinate are purely basedon the essence of the psychological contract, philosophy. In thisregard, the philosophy is a process, and not a scientific formula. Asa manager, I will be excepted to live up to respect, fairness andcompassion. On the other hand, I would expect trust and objectivityfrom the employees. Together, these expectations define mutualbenefiting, which would characterize a positive and forwardorganizational culture.
The three criteria that reward packages satisfy are the status of theemployee, length of service and winning of the same award more thanonce a year. As for employee status, the management can considerfull-time employees, part-time employees of students on attachment.Some of the rewards under this are cash handoffs and certification.As for the length of service, the management considers the minimumlength of service that an employee must attain to receive a certainreward. Some of the rewards considered are promotion and materialgifts. The third criterion is whether an employee that has won anaward can win it again within that year. Some of the rewards underthis criterion are exemplary performance rewards and employee of themonth rewards.
Groupcohesiveness is a major determinant factor in organizationaleffectiveness. Cohesive units embrace diversity, and as such, promotegrowth. As a manager, I would first embark on the development ofgroup norms. According to (Ivancevich et al., 2013), group norms arethe standard sets of behaviors to which groups abide by rules. Topromote group norms as part of the activity for cohesiveness, I wouldencourage the members to accept diversity and to play as a unit. Someof the things that define a unified unit are good communicationskills, mutual respect and helping each other in areas of weakness.In organizational behavior, group norms and cohesiveness are relatedthrough organizational culture. When an organization promotes unity,the group norms are most likely to have elements of unity among themembers. Some of the key issues to watch out for as work groupsbecome more cohesive are the progress of the members and consistencywith the norms. When these are kept in check, the groups can becomemore cohesive and focused on development.
Of the four major negotiation approaches, I would settle for theinteractive negotiation or win-win approach. This approach issuperior to all other approaches. The main reason for this is that atthe end of the negation process, all parties are left feelingsatisfied with the outcomes. I also chose this approach because ofits three main characteristics. First, it allows for sufficientresources to be factored to achieve a ‘win’ situation for allparties. Secondly, the primary concern is maximizing the outcomes, sothat both parties leave the negotiation table satisfied. Finally,this approach is the most applicable for organizational stakeholdersmutual problem-solving. Besides creating value, it gives a chance forfurther engagement and agreement between involved parties. Moreover,managers who use this approach are mostly focused on interests, andthey develop concrete strategies to benefit their organizations overtime.
Organizational management scholars assert that using power in a badway leads to corruption of the entire system. To manage power, Iwould first encourage the management and leadership of organizationsto recognize the legitimacy of it. By doing this, those in power willbe bound by the set rules, and they will not be able to abuse it oruse it in a bad way. I would also ensure that those in leadershipbecome aware of the coercive nature of power, and in this regard, beable to use it wisely. A person in power needs to learn the limitsand excesses of their positions, and by doing so, they can managetheir influence and ensure that they apply authority fairly. I wouldalso decentralize authority and regulate terms of office occupancy.As a more stringent measure, I would put in place a policy to punishexcesses by law and by organizational regulations.
To ensure good communication within my organization, I will developan open communication forum for a feedback program. For instance, Iwill request for weekly reports to monitor activities and stayup-to-date with any trends. Organizing for monthly meetings willserve a platform that addresses overall company goals and issues.Selecting technologies that enhance clarity in communication channelsand quick response will increase productivity among workers.Precedents of illustrative benefits of improved communication includereduced misunderstandings in passing instructions o taking orders.For instance, uniform classification of products along with stockupdate avoids ordering mistakes in sales. Good communication createsa common understanding that promotes desires to work towardsachieving common goals, improves relationships with others andincreases confidence. The interpreter is responsible for the messagereceived. The interpreter determines if the intended message is putinto effective use (Lvancevich et. al, 2013).
Employees commonly resist changes through protesting by forminggroups of members with similar views. Postponing on the use of a newsystem is another common way of employees’ resistances to changes.I can establish a culture of accepting changes by pinpointing theactual worth of the alternations made. In other ways, I willindirectly establish the culture by letting the employees apply thechange indirectly to determine their reactions for example lettingmedical staff use electronic records rather than paperwork. I willalso employ the issue of the whiteboard to assist the employees toidentify the problem detected that needs a change. I will addressboth overt and covert resistance at an early stage to comprehend thesource that plays an invaluable insight used in readiness for thechanges (Lvancevich et. al, 2013).
Lvancevich, J., Konopaske, R., & Matteson, M. (2013).Organizational Behavior & Management (10th Ed.).McGraw-Hill.