Negotiationcan be termed as the process through which joint decisions are madewhen two or more parties get involved in different preferences(Mehnert, 2008). Negotiation can take two distinct approaches, eitherintegrative or distributive. The distributive approach to negotiationis where each party seeks to attain their advantage over thepresented issue leading to a win-lose basis. The party would attemptto mislead the floor, conceals certain valuable information or rathermanipulate facts and actions presented. However, integrativenegotiation is where boththe parties can define goals and allow each individual to achieve theobjectives set on a win-win basis. Planningfor activities yet to be undertaken is quite critical as itencourages smooth flow of events and avoids confusion or mishandlingof certain duties. The plan, therefore, means a well, organized andsequential activities together with a collection of resources to beused when guiding a specific person towards achieving a particulargoal. The negotiation plan is designed such that it will clarify thesubject matter, the duration for interaction, sections to be covered,criteria for providing instructions for each single section as wellas evaluation criteria for checking comprehension.
Whenan individual sets a plan, he or she should consider the pros andcons of distributive and integrative negotiation approaches as listedbelow.
Advantagesof distributive approach to negotiation
Conflicts enhances personal development
It ends in a win-lose situation that only benefit one party
Creates competition between the parties and one is viewed as competitor
The negotiator only focus on meeting personal interests
Advantagesof integrative negotiation
It creates a win-win situation for both parties
It’s collaborative, and both parties negotiate in a friendly manner
It’s a management tool used to solve conflicts between parties
Negotiation focuses on a mutual interest that benefits all parties
Disadvantagesdistributive approach to negotiation
Involves competitive processes
Party’s perceptions become distorted thus lead to bias
The issues presented in dispute become blurred and would not be defined
Parties become rigid to their positions
Conflict may arise
Wheninstituting negotiation process, both the involved parties should notset objectives that are rigid and firm but rather set options thatgive the best alternatives to all sides. It is evident that the bestapproach to be chosen in integrative approach of negotiation, as itbenefit both the parties. Organizations, for example, that want tocreate flexible working shift for their employees, need to createplan that favors both the subordinates and the organization as wellto merge the gaps existing during the pick. When the firm is in itspick hour moments where more efforts and extension of time isrequired, negotiation plan should be set to help minimize workingshifts issues. The call center, therefore, are requested to expandits working hours and add an additional day in order to meet theexpected target. The main objective of the call center is to achievethe organizational goal of extending working hours and adding anextra day within the schedule. The plan can only be achieved byincorporating employees within the new work schedule.
Employeesshould then choose from the amended working shifts that favors everyan individual at his or her convenience as opposed to the initialshifts that seem to be rigid. The flexible shifts are limited toeveryone since the senior staff get the first chance of pickingchanges that are ideal for them and leave others with fewer optionsthat may bring conflicting ideas. Therefore, common grounds thatbenefit both the parties should be created through negotiation. TheBest Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement (BATNA) should be setprior to an agreement. The negotiator ought to know what to do incase she fails to reach a joint agreement during the negotiationprocess. If he or she fails to define her BATNA prior to negotiation,she might put herself in a weak position, thereby rejecting an offerthat would have been a benefit (Lewicki, Barry and Saunders, 2011).The preferred shift that suit Michelle’s programs would be workingfrom 10:00am-6:00pm Monday through Friday and the BATNA will beworking from 10:00am-6:00 pm Tuesday-Saturday (8:00-4:00pm onSaturdays) to benefit both the parties.
Inmost cases, the negotiation process is always done well within theorganizations’ surrounding. The best common ground to establishnegotiation between the parties will be within the call center fieldsi.e. within the offices. Though, when the two parties want tominimize advantages that might come by holding the meeting at theirground, a neutral place should be set depending on the nature of themeeting, and should constitute the general management committee ofthe call center and staff members including the affected person.
Inorder to gain full contribution from the participants, the affectedperson should present her grievances in a note form to all membersthrough the secretary’s desk who will draft her agenda in hard copyupon consulting the manager, and circulate to the relevant parties inadvance. The agenda should specify the starting and ending time, andplace of the meeting, the topic to be discussed i.e. the managementflexibility to allow the affected person to choose a working shiftthat will benefit both the parties (organization and the affectedperson).
Lewicki,R., Barry, B., & Saunders, D. (2011). Essentialsof Negotiation.(5th ed.). McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Mehnert,M. (2008). Negotiation:Definition and Types, Manager`s Issues in Negotiation, CulturalDifferences and the Negotiation Process.GRIN Verlag.