Language Construction

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LanguageConstruction

Inthe world we live in today, there are more than seven thousandlanguages that are spoken by people. Surprisingly ninety percent ofthese languages are spoken by less than a hundred thousand people.Among the ninety percent is the Aqwanic language. The Aqwaniclanguage is an artificial language or, in other words, thevocabulary, phonology and grammar are constructed and created fromscratch. The components of constructed language are primitive whichis the tiniest unit of meaning and means of combination that are therules used in building elements of a new language by joining thesimple ones. Through constructionist approached, professionals inlinguistics can account for the full range of facts surroundinglanguage, that is, without making assumptions by regarding aparticular data subset forms part of a “privileged “core.” Infact, researchers have pointed out that unusual constructions have,on some occasions, shed light on issues of a more general nature.Also, these unusual constructions can also shed more light regardingthe essentials of a complete and comprehensive account of language.This paper reveals how language [Aqwanic] can be constructed.

Aqwanicis language that contains about twenty letters. It omits some of theletters that are used in other languages. The letters that areomitted in this language are J K Q Z X AND B. Aquatic orthography israther phonemic it has pattern stress, and, subsequently, acomparatively rational set of spelling guidelines. Aqwanic languagemakes substantial application of digraphs, and its many letters yielddiverse sounds that are reliant on what they precede or prosper.However, these letters and diverse sounds are not up front like manylanguages: the succeeding rules are reliable in the prevailing ofAqwanic orthography. It should be renowned, though, that vowels havetheir individual set of intonation rules, and the table concerningstress and vowel lessening should be referred in its place.

Inthis study paper the Aqwanic language is an endangered language withonly a few people or none speaking it the reason being the Agwanicspeaking community was absorbed by Luo community who invaded theyland. The people who spoke the Aqwanic language were known as theAthi people. The Athi people were fishermen, farmers and friendlytraders who rode on horseback while travelling with their goods. TheAqwanic speakers were related to the Suba Bantu people in Kenya andbelonged to the Nilo-Saharan, language family. Aqwanic language hasno writing system, but there are several oral tradition associatedwith it. The Athi people were led by a chief who was referred to asMuthamaki. Muthamaki would lead his warriors to raid the neighboringcommunities, and the plunder from the raids would be divided amongthe clans that were referred to as the Muherega.

Phonetics

Thescience of phonetics investigates and considers all aspect of speech:How speech organs produce speech the properties of speech sound asit travels through the air to the listener`s ear from the speakermouth and how speech is perceived and its structure elementsrecognized as certain linguistic signs and symbols. Aqwanic isphonemic, marking stress and subsequent a comparatively logical setof spelling rules. Aqwanic language creates a heavy application ofdigraphs, and many letters yield different sounds liable on what theygo before or prosper (Watkins, et al. 323). Though not direct likemany dialects, the resulting rules are constant in the prevailing ofAqwanic language in the instruction dd and tt, dental fricativesconvert into sibilants, therefore dd, initially /ðd/ converts into/ad/ and tt, formerly /θt/ develops to /st

Itis to be noted, however, that vowels have their set of intonationprocedures, and the table about stress and vowel discount should bementioned to in its place.

Wvs. Mh vs. M, I vs. Ch. Vs.

Thereis a characteristically simple rule to monitor when script /i/, /u/,/j/ and /w/. Characteristically, both /i/ and /j/ are signified by‹i›, as are /u/ and /w/ by ‹w›. Though, this is notpermanently true. /i/ and /u/ are ALWAYS signified by ‹i› and‹w›, however /j/ and /w/ are NOT continuously signified by ‹i›and ‹w›. ‹i› and ‹w› only represent /j/ and /w/ whenprevious other vowels. This is naturally seen either in thecommencement of a word, or afterward a consonant but before a vowel.Intervocalic /j/ and /w/ are printed entirely diverse, by means ofthe digraphs ‹gh› and ‹mh›, separately, and are written ‹g›and ‹m› before consonants. Note the resulting application inwhich ‹i› and ‹w› are used consonantally.

hisyth,/jɪθ/

wéedda,&nbsp/`weð.da/,/`wez.da/ in some vernaculars.

niéasty,/ɲe.tɪ/

gwtdýda,&nbsp/`gwɪ.da/

Notethe consonantal practices when applied intervocalic ally.

vóghftyth,&nbsp/vo.jɪθ/

gýmhsfa,/gɪ.wa/

Inaddition, note the use when making diphthongs and previousconsonants.

slágdha,&nbsp/slaj.ðɐ/

fómsvyr,&nbsp/fous.vɪr/

Letter

Context

IPA

a

[a]

c

[k]

d

[d]

dg

[dʒ]

dh

[ð]

e

[e]

f

[f]

g

initial, before vowels

[g]

before consonants

[j]

intervocalic, final

[ɣ]

gh

[j]

h

[Ø]

hi

[j]

i

[i]

before vowels

[j]

l

[l]

m

initial, before vowels

[m]

before consonants

[w]

mh

[w]

mg

[ɰ̃]

n

[n]

ni

before vowels

[ɲ]

o

[o]

p

[p]

r

[ɾ]

rh

[ʐ]

rg

[ʐ]

s

[s]

sg

[ʃ]

t

[t]

th

t

[θ]

u

[ø]

v

[v]

w

[u]

before vowels

[w]

y

[ɪ]

Moreexamples

Stress

Stressin Aqwanic though quite consistent at intervals, is marked by asevere accent (áéíóúẃý). Characteristically, stress canoriginate on the second to last syllable in disyllabic words, thoughnumerous nouns variation their stress intensities in declensions, asit ensure verbs in conjugations. Indeed, the past tense for -en verbsis made by means of the similar present tense customs, andreorganizing stress. Note&nbspfenéo&nbsptells about I reflect,even though&nbspfeneó&nbspmeans&nbspI understood.

Phonology

Consonants

Bilabial

Labio-dental

Dental

Alveolar

Post- alveolar

Retroflex

Palatal

Velar

Nasal

m

n

ɲ

Plosive

p

t d

k ɡ

Fricative

f v

θ ð

s

ʃ

ʐ

x ɣ

Affricate

t͡ʃd͡ʒ

Approximant

j

w ɰ̃

Flap / Tap

ɾ

Lateral

l

Vowels

Monophthongs

Front

Central

Back

Close

i • y

ɨ

u

Near-close

ɪ

Close-mid

e • ø

o

Mid

Open-mid

ɛ • œ

Near-open

ɐ

Open

a

Avowel`s superiority is subject to change dependent on its relativesituation to the main stressed vowel. For instance, /e/ converts /ɨ/when directly before or after a stressed vowel, as does /a/ when itconverts /ɐ/. The chart below displays each printed vowel`sexcellence with its relative position, the positions being originallystressed, previous a stressed vowel, stressed inside the word(stressed but not original nor concluding), after a stressed vowel,and being stressed lastly.

Vowel

Primary

Previous

Central

Following

Final

a

[a]

[ɐ]

[a]

[ɐ]

[a]

e

[ɛ]

[ɨ]

[e]

[ɛ]

[e]

i

[i]

[i]

[i]

[i]

[i]

o

[o]

[o]

[o]

[o]

[o]

u

[ø]

[œ]

[ø]

[œ]

[y]

w

[u]

[u]

[u]

[u]

[u]

y

[ɪ]

[ɪ]

[ɪ]

[ɪ]

[ɪ]

Alphabet

TheAqwanic Alphabet contains of 20 letters. It fixes not comprisenumerous letters used in other languages, those being&nbspQ X B ZKJ.

AC O P R D E V W F M N S T G H I L U Y

Syntax

Aqwanis a deeply changed linguistic, with an abundant deal of its grammarcomprising of the morphology. Separately from that, the significanceof declensions in Aqwan MUST be strained, as greatest prepositionsfailure all three of the prepositional circumstances, with each sensebeing clear by a circumstance

Iagmycgághythmozsfganu,&nbspIstill consumption for now, lit. I do now not the consumption.

Enaẃdgieessziwythmsffsoliý,&nbspsheruns speedily, lit. She runs with the rapidity.

Ethrẃsssseescoamgathplósfseessesca mozgalýhgvímozgasessgẃzeVondóulsesiziwatsshcgéssssca,&nbspThe Russiangent then the Polish lady ate with the Czech female atVonooola`srestauraunt, lit. Russian besides refinement ate at eaetplace Vondoela with Czech.

Morphology

Wdháasthfailures for gender and for number.&nbspWdháasth&nbsphas a meaningof &quotthe one that&quot or &quotthe thing that&quot, whichoriginates from the morphology of the pronoun,&nbspw&nbsp(whichalterations to&nbspwdh-&nbspwhen putting nominalizing articles when-dh- additions between vowels), that, and&nbspath, the article.Fundamentally, the creation of this relative pronoun is just usingthe precise form of wdhand the individual nominalizing article fixedon, merely with declensions for circumstance being a freshly addedfeature to the article.

Reminder:&nbspclassically,if the gender of an item is unnamed or indefinite, the fix is used.

Whatyou supposed =&nbspWdhýththeytsfhẃsg.

Characteristically,when the sex is unidentified or indefinite, or there is zero to relaythe sex to, the female is used.

Theone that ate my food =&nbspWdháthmozgóumigwmynn.

Semantics

Aqwanicis a heavily changed language, with a great deal of itssyntaxcontaining of the morphology. Apart from that, the rank ofdeclensions in Aqwanic language MUST be harassed, as greatestprepositions decay all three of the prepositional circumstances, witheach sense being defined by a circumstance. Notice, for instance, theapplication on behalf of &quotvi&quot

Weidhaanvirévasrsgyr,&nbsptooriginate from the inside of a woodland

Tenvirévassrgo,&nbspto go into a woodland

Thẃdhsranvirévastrsgyth,&nbsptobe in a woodland

Aqwanicnouns, adjectives, and determiners drop to 5linguisticcircumstances:

Nominative,&nbspLiráasddonif,symbols the subject of a verb. Likewise scripts the base of thecopulative construction &quotthẃxsdhan&quot, theoreticallyinterpreted to mean, &quotTo be&quot.

Accusative,&nbspMésiudondif,&nbspscriptsthe direct object of a verb. Reflected to be the &quotverbal&quotinstance, however this is improper as verbs can manage other cases,frequently to govern separate connotations.Prepositions&nbspalways&nbspfollow a noun in the accusative, and itis more mutual for accusatives to take the second linguisticsituation in a sentence.

Genitive,&nbspOviéfdonnif,scripts ownership and undertaking from. Originally, only noticeableownership and relation, though an&nbspablative&nbspcase clearundertaking from, but these two cases finally merged comparative tothe English prepositions &quotfrom&quot.

Reflection

Theaqwanic language functions to change every non-noun in the entireaqwanic linguistic into a part of dialog that, if not a noun, atleastroles like a noun. Classically, it issimilarto saying&nbspthe…one, however its practice is much more complex than that.

Thepaper is classically applied on adjectives to make normal theadjectives. For instance, an unnamed big object could be mentionedto&nbspathroar&nbsprelatively than&nbsplosslarora. It is also usedin omit ion, particularly when the item before is separate.Stereotypically, the female article is used when sex is unidentified,which shows to be distinctive due to the neuter normally being thedefault sex.

Whenchanged for sex, one could even require things to individuals. Forinstance, one could say&nbspmedsffdvosguno&nbspfor&nbspold man,but easily sufficient, one could. Substitute&nbspmevdstfyo&nbspwith&nbspeth&nbspandalready assume that the old thing being specified is masculine. Thelanguage does not change for case nor number, just sex. Note, apartfrom the three given sexes, a distinct sex exists — a non-genderedlanguage that in result is used for all parts of dialogue not dividedinto sex, for example verbs and adverbs This sex is not exactly takeninto thought, as it only seems in verbs and adverbs.Characteristically, for verbs,&nbspath&nbspis applied except anegative particle go before&nbspað, in which&nbspyth&nbspisapplied.

Thelanguage is used with most parts of linguistic, usually to conveydiverse sets of information. Note the practices below:

Iagmycgágfghythmonnzganu,&nbspIclogged consumption for now, lit. I do now not the consumption.

Enaẃdgiziwythhjgmoliý,&nbspsheruns quickly, lit. She runs with the rapidity.

Ethrosgdoeamgathplóoasca mozgalýhgvímozgasgẃzeVondinguliziwathcgékhgssca,&nbspThe Russian personand the Polish lady ate with the Czech woman at Vondkjgola`srestaurannt, lit. Russian and polish ate at eatplnfaceVondkjgola withCzech.

WorkCited

Watkins,Michael A, Andreia S. Rauber, and Barbara O. Baptista. RecentResearch in Second Language Phonetics/phonology: Perception andProduction.Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars, 2009. Internet resource.

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