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Ethicalrelativism is described as a type of cynicism on ethical reasoning.The reasoning is that there exists correct and wrong answers toethically asked questions. Generally the theory suggests thatmorality is somehow relative to the models of an individual’sculture. In that respect, a particular deed is considered right orwrong depending on the society in which it is undertaken. An actioncan be deemed morally wrong in one society but right in another. Thispaper will look to elaborate on this theory. It will outline the mainbrands of relativism and outline the strengths this particular theoryholds. Additionally, it will give a detailed account of the drawbacksof the theory. It is also vital to give my own assumptions of thetheory and try to relate it with the current way of life.

Differentcultures differ on moral values and looking at it descriptively,relativism tend to be correct. Evidently, ideologies on ethics differvastly globally. Descriptive ethical relativism entails thedescriptive or rather factual assertion that ideologies on valuesdiffer. To backup descriptive relativism, morality will consideredacross different cultures. It is morally wrong to bribe orparticipate in such like acts in some cultures, whereas others do notcondemn the same. Sexual practices also tend to vary across manygroups. For instance, cannibalism is acceptable to some culturessince it boosts tribal fertility and can also increase manliness.However, the same practice is condemned in many cultures and can leadto imprisonment. Individuals from Alaska and northern Canada also hada belief that elderly people could be abandoned if they could notcope with the rest of the group. Some Indian cultures also practicedthe killing of an innocent individual whenever someone dies as a wayof fighting death. The innocent killing would somehow appease thegroup. Viewing this kind of behaviors from a different perspectivewould indicate a moral wrong. Examples of descriptive relativism arequite vast, and the most logical one entails clothing. Some nationsdo not tolerate short skirts i.e. women are supposed to cover theirhair as well as legs. However, it acceptable in some nations. Femalegenital mutilation is another aspect that is controversial in somecultures yet some adopt the practice. Values are adhered todifferently across the different cultures. This does not mean thatvalues are morally right, there can a general consensus of whether apractice is justifiable. Not all values are facts. Therefore, despitehaving a varying thought on certain values, it is quite possible forit to be wrong even if it is practiced [ CITATION Mac l 1033 ].

Metaethicalrelativism insinuates that no objective or universal norms exist.According to this assumption, absolute values do not exist. Instead,values are just opinions, feelings, beliefs or practices of culturesas well as individuals. In Accordance to metaethical relativism, anobjective wrong or right does not exist. Generally, by utilizing thisassumption, there is no factual way of stating whether a deed isright or wrong taking different societies into consideration.

Ethicalrelativism can be well understood by relating ethics to science. Avast majority of individuals are certain that natural sciences i.e.chemistry, geology, biology, physics as well as their modernmodifications explain more on the natural world. Through science,nature and the global structure has been uncovered. Science hascontributed to the progresses across the globe in various aspects.Modern science is acceptable across the globe regardless of anindividual’s background. It generally possesses a mutual body ofknowledge across all individuals. Though not all aspects of scienceare agreeable across the globe, most of them have the same effect.For example, not all cultures believe western biomedicine hold thekey to good health. On the other hand, morality is not perceived tobe objective. Apart from people not having a general agreement onwhat is right or wrong, individuals also doubt whether ethicaljudgments can be agreed upon. Morality in some cases is thought to bean issue of subjective opinions. In general therefore, ethicalrelativism views morality as a function of moral values individualshave. There is no reality or moral truth that is analogous to naturestudied by science [ CITATION Mac l 1033 ].

Infurther elaborating the ethical relativism nature, it can becategorized into two forms i.e. individual or personal and culturalrelativism. Individual relativism or rather subjectivism entailethical beliefs that express the moral attitudes and outlook ofindividuals. Such judgments are considered subjective rather thanobjective. Each individual has his/her own ethically sound valuesi.e. an individual’s view can be correct to him/her but differ witha different individual. For instance, one may have a view that acertain war is justifiable whereas another believes it is not. It ismostly a matter of difference in opinion. Everyone has his/her ownhistory that leads to certain views. In that respect, an individual’sviews and attitude are only correct to that particular person. Theycannot be generally correct to another person. For them to becorrect, then a standard has to be initiated to justify whether adeed is correct or not. However, in accordance to ethical relativisma standard of that order does not exist.

Culturalor social relativism suggests that ethical values differ amongsocieties. Additionally, the foundation of moral judgments depend onthe cultural or social views. A person has to consider the social orcultural norms before deciding whether something is right or wrong.Persons within the society may deem their views to be morallycorrect. However, a social relativist asserts that no particularsociety can view their values to be better than others within atranscultural logic. Though the views may differ and not beacceptable in the larger side of the society, it does not make themmore backward, incorrect or worse in an objective sense [ CITATION Mac l 1033 ].

Strengthsof the theory

Byupholding the societal means of defining right and wrong deeds,individuals can maintain their views in line with the same. A personis mainly guided by cultural norms rather than individual views.Descriptions of what is right or wrong helps maintain a conduciveenvironment. For instance, if killing for personal satisfaction wasto be dependent on personal view, then the society could be havingproblems. However, by outlining morally right and wrong deeds withinthe society, such cases are minimized or rather dealt withappropriately.

Moraldiversity is one aspect supporting relativism. Contrary to otherfields such as history and science, ethics has no consensus on anumber of views. Ethics embraces the fact that moral views are quitediversified. Diversity also tends to create tolerance as well as openmindedness. Since there is no standard view on morality, people tendto tolerate one another without necessarily judging one another.There is also a great deal of uncertainty concerning morals.

Thetheory helps differentiate what norms can be guided by society andindividuals. Some views are made on a personal level i.e. they aredeemed right or wrong at a personal level. In that respect, anindividual’s definition of right or wrong can defer from anotherperson’s definition. Some aspects are also governed by society i.e.for a deed to be considered right or wrong, the societal norms haveto be taken into consideration.

Weaknessof the theory

Somenorms tend to be shared among different cultures but with varyingcapacities. For instance, different cultures may agree that lifeshould be valued but disagree on what life stands for and how itshould be valued. In that respect, the theory does not give auniversal understanding of what is morally right or wrong across thedifferent cultures. Generally, relativism tends to beself-contradictory in some aspect. By suggesting that values arerelative, then probably relativism itself can be considered as avalue of judgment [ CITATION Mac l 1033 ].

Accordingto Louis Pojman, universal values which transcend across the culturesexist. He argues against relativism mainly favoring a universalismapproach. Contrary to the relativism approach whereby views differacross different cultures, the universalism approach tends to suggestthat norms are the same across the various cultures. Even thoughLouis criticizes the relativism theory, it is still a noble one. Thisis because the suggestions within the theory are justifiable. A goodexample of how the theory is quite logical can be drawn fromclothing. Different cultures uphold a certain degree of dress code.It does not have to be uniform across the cultures. Some culturesbelieve in covering the entire body i.e. hair and legs, whereasothers do not condemn short skirts [ CITATION Mac l 1033 ].

Inconclusion therefore, the ethical relativism theory is applicableacross most cultures. The way people perceive moral values differsdependent on history, culture among others. Though some values can beupheld in different cultures, it does not entirely suggest that theyhave to be adhered to the same way. Moral values are also dependenton an individual. An individual may not be morally obligated tobehave in some manner, if the value is not governed within thesociety.


Mackinnon. &quotEthical Relativism.&quot Ethical Relativism (n.d.): 46-67.

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Islamand Modernity

Islamremains a contentious and sensitive issue in the globe, particularlyin the non-Muslim societies. There are some misunderstandingsregarding the beliefs, values, and objectives of the Muslims. TheIslamic faith is practiced in various cultures and societies acrossthe world. The religion has shaped many aspects in thesocio-political and economic sphere in the world. The paper willexamine the role of women in modernizing Islam. It will also examinevarious teachings of the Muslim religion and how it is practiced invarious societies around the world. Further, it will assess theinteraction between the Muslim and non-Muslims faiths acrosscultures.Islam is a religion that advocates for a balance between therequirements of the present world and the next thereby demanding itsfollowers to exist in harmony with people from a diversesocio-cultural background.Anincreasing number of Muslim women are criticizing Islamists for`backwardness and blaming non-Muslims for any misfortune.TaslimaNasrin, Nyamko Sabuni, andWafaSultan are some of the leading critics of this newdiscourse.

Inthe contemporary world, the traditional values and norms are slowlybeing replaced by disjointed allegiance that are taking shape due toglobalization and modernity in many spheres of life. Streamliningof the cultural and religious systems involves the development ofmechanisms that will allow openness and entrenchment of contemporarypractices. Such an approach would be helpful in the realisation ofsocietal goals.Thegrowth of Islam religion in non-Muslim nations is a touchy matterthat revolves around issues such as politics, economics and culturalbeliefs (CooperandPiyu 106).Part of the reason many women criticise Islam is due to inequality inits regard for women. Another concern has emerged due to theincreased extremism that has negatively affected global peace.Increased cases of terrorism have been associated with extremistgroups, the majority of who subscribe to Islam.

Thereare many stereotypes regarding the Muslim faith by people who havelittle or no understanding of this religion. In the US, for instance,some citizens think that Muslims live in the Middle East. However,many other regions in the world have a high number of Muslimpopulations such as Indonesia. About one billion Muslims are found inthe Asian region and about 300 million in the Sub-Saharan region.Further, many people around the world construe Arabs to be Muslimswhereas there are millions of Arabs who are Christians. Muslims havegreat respect for other religions such as Christians, but many peoplebelieve that they do not uphold respect for Jesus and other teachingsof the Christian faith. Contrary to the assertion by some Christiansand other religion that Allah is an idol, this is not the case sinceAllah is the Muslim’s reference to God. The significant beliefamong the Muslims is to worship one true God. Muslimfundamentalism is not just a global challenge but affects Muslimsaround the world in a way that is difficult to understand (Davidson56). Nonetheless, most western societies like to consider genuineMuslims as perpetrators without considering that they are alsovictims of such acts. Fundamental groups are a threat to Islam as areligion because it challenges the genuine teachings of Islamicthrough gross interpretation of Islamic texts.

Pro-westernersappear to support modernity and secular principles while the Muslimworld maintains that such changes must be aligned with the Islamicvalues and traditions. Modernity appears to cause rifts in theformulation of important policies, treaties, and declarations aroundthe world. Thesocial and religious integration of Muslims and Islaminto Western societies caused conflict and violence in the world overthe years. In her book, AGod Who Hates,Sultan talks about radical Islam where she argues that Islam hasbecome barbarous.She condemns Islam for its hate and unequal treatment of women.Dr.Wafa Sultan is a renowned individual who is a critic of the Islamicteachings. In her thesis, she argued about the conflict betweenmodernity and barbarism that Islam is likely to lose. She argues thatproblems facing Islam arise from its teachings. Sultan (2013)believes that Islam is a political philosophy that advocatesviolence. Although she is a Muslim, Sultan does not fully believe inIslam.

Overthe last few decades, there has been a misconception created by manyindividuals that try to link the Muslims with the rising incidencesof terrorism. Humanrights violation acts have recently been associated with Islam owingto the practices of fundamental groups operating in some countries.However, these acts are used by these groups to subjugate thesesocieties and not because these groups are interested in advancingthe Islamic religion. It is important that the difference isunderstood. Increasing acts of terrorism around the globe has led tothe stigmatization of Muslims especially Arab Muslims due to racialand religious stereotyping. Racial and religious stereotyping happendespite the fact that there is clear indication that Islam as areligion does not support acts of terrorism. Stigmatization hasforced many young and gullible Muslims to join fundamental groupsbecause of the notion that they need to protect their culturalidentity and religion. In the United States and Britain, Muslims areconstrued to be terrorists since the 9/11 attack on the US. Farfrom the truth, the majority of the Muslims do not support theextremist outlook on violence and terrorism.Despite the fact that genuine Muslims around the world continue tocondemn terrorism acts perpetrated by such Muslims fundamentalgroups, western societies have continued to be hostile towards ArabMuslims. Different socio-cultural and political dynamics operating inthe Middle East and Arab countries are responsible for the emergenceof such groups. It is imperative for the world to assist suchcountries in fighting these fundamental groups rather than targetingthe Islamic religion. Theircampaigns support the eradication of global challenges such aspoverty and skewed allocation of resources. Muslims like many otherreligions have different sects that adopt distinct ideologies andtheology (Masud,Armando, and Martin 29).

Onenessof God, responsibility to perform good acts and to practice fairnessand integrity are some of the values in the Islamic faith. Islam hascome into being as an innovative and dynamic force owing tomodernity. This has been a departure from the traditional beliefs andvalues. Islam has provided the platform for flexibility as well ascreating space for modernity. The association between the modernity,Islam, and their politics takes various forms. Some Muslim faithfuldisagrees with the modernity. The perspective is different from theChristians who continue to new changes in their beliefs.There are prominent Islamic figures in the modern Islamic world thatare seen to represent the clues to reading the Islamic movements, aswell as the Islamic situations in their countries (Lovat 44).

Judaismis a religion that follows Abrahamic and Mosaic laws, and so isIslam. However, Judaists or Muslims in the western world do notconform to such extreme acts as the stoning of adultery suspects.Conventional laws in most countries such as Indonesia that arepredominantly Muslim and whose laws are largely borrowed from Islamictexts do not follow such extreme acts such as stoning adulterers orcutting the hand of thieves. In India and Pakistan where the Muslimspopulation is significantly higher, interpretation of Islamicteachings takes a contextual approach with acts such as stoningrarely practiced. In countries ruled by Muslim fundamental groupssuch as Somalia extreme acts of human rights violations are going tothe extreme extent of cutting the private parts of men caught inadultery (Khan 58).

Sometraditions and religious values held the fact that women are inferiormembers of the society. As a result, women were discriminated inareas such as socio-economic participation. Women activists seek tocreate the agenda that would help in ending sex-based discrimination.Like all cultural prejudices and stereotypes, there is always theconsciousness that human beings tend to draw quick and broadassumptions based on very limited knowledge. Islam has become a majorsocio-cultural and political controversy especially as the worldadvances towards globalization. Muslims in the western world arecoming to terms with a new form of threat to their religion andfreedom. Misconceptions about Islamic religion and culture has led tocontroversies around the world surrounding Islam and Muslims (Subedi20). These controversies have functioned counter-productively leadingto a situation where even genuine Muslims feel threatened. Themisconceptions affect the interactions among the Muslim andnon-Muslim communities.

Inaddressing the role of women in Islam, it is important todifferentiate between cultural practices and religious practices.Islam is not a religion that operates in a vacuum, and it is just asprone as other religions to cultural influences. The traditionalsociety was largely patriarchal and most religious texts that werewritten within these societies demonstrated gender discriminationundertones. Although major religions like Christianity and Judaismattempted to emphasize the need for an egalitarian society, religiouspractices still demonstrated prejudice against women. According toEngineer (2008), biblical texts in the New Testament forbid womenfrom preaching the word of God. However, nowadays there are manywomen preachers around the world. Islam was not able to escape fromsuch cultural influences, and some of the practices adopted byfollowers are more cultural than religious. There is nothing that hasdrawn controversy in the west as the wearing of HijabbyIslamic women especially in western countries such as the US andBritain.

Religioussyncretism is responsible for diversity and perception regarding theHijab.Theattempt by different cultures to adopt Islam has led to a culturalmix between religious teachings and cultural requirements (Maroney52). Evidently, there are also some societies that are resilient tosocial and cultural changes around the world, and therefore, attemptto maintain patriarchy through the use of religious teachings.MostMuslims women in the western world wear the veil as a symbol oftheir cultural affiliations to Islam and Arabic culture. Owing to thecultural discrimination that Muslims face around the world, somestill wear the veil as a symbol of protesting against discriminationby religion.Other traditional norms such as female genital mutilationand violence against women are not condoned in Islam. However, thesepractices might be evident in the Arab world as a result of theinfluence of the Arabic culture of Islamic religion. Therefore, thesepractices should not be confused with Islam as a religion. Islam is areligion that advocates for certain cultural practices required ofits followers (Shehadeh 98). Just as outlined in the introduction,Islam does not exist in a vacuum, and it is therefore bound to beaffected by the cultural practices of the communities in which thereligion operates. Muslimshave a high regard for women. In fact, some women have been appointedto senior positions in the society. The current Prime Ministers ofBangladesh (Sheikh Hasina Wazed) and Mali (Cissé Mariam Sidibé) areMuslim women. Raheel Raza, a Pakistani-Canadian, has been a critic ofIslam for what she believes is inequality against women.Raza has beenan interfaith discussion leader and an anti-racism activist. Throughher book, TheirJihad, Not My Jihad: A Muslim Canadian Woman Speaks Out, Razadiscounts Islamic terrorism and gender discrimination.

Besidesindividuals, various groups such as StopIslamization of Nationshave come out to condemn extremism.Wafa Sultan is a board member inthe organization. Islamic extremism is condemned throughout the worldfor promoting violence in the name of religion. Thereare prominent Islamic figures in the modern Islamic world that areseen to represent the clues to reading the Islamic movements, as wellas the Islamic situations in their countries. Islamic movements incountries such as Egypt phenomenon explains revisions and thepotential future impact they have on the Jihadist movement as well ascompulsion in the Islamic faith. However, not everyone supports thecelebrations of these revisions, and it is because the revisionsmight not be of any use in predicting a scenario in the future.

Conventionon the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination againstWomen(CEDAW)hasgenerated controversies, especially due to the declarations made bysome members that are seen to advance Western-style feminism. Theincreasing sex-role stereotypesas well as the promotion of women’straditional roles, is a contradiction to the efforts by CEDAW.Further, the convention supports the liberalization of the abortionlaws. Such initiatives go against many religious beliefs, includingIslamic values. The Islamic law elucidates that women are inferiorcompared to men. The law prohibits women from participating incertain activities. To the pro-western nations, this is seen as aform of discrimination and unfair treatment based on gender. Whenaddressing the role of women in Islam societies, it is important todifferentiate between the traditional and religious practices (Abiad22). Such matters contained in the Sharia law makes the CEDAW appearcontroversial in the Muslim world. Like other religions, Islam isprone as other religions to cultural influences. The traditionalsociety was largely patriarchal and most religious texts that werewritten within these societies demonstrated gender discriminationundertones (Haddad &amp Stowasser137).

Humandignity and respect must be maintained irrespective of sexorientation, race, nationality, religion, economic, and socialstatus. Respect for human rights creates the foundation for aconstructive platform, which enhances the socio-economic developmentaround the world. Theprinciple of equal liberty, for instance, seeks to merge the ethicsof equality, individual autonomy, and obligations(Kamali37). Thesocietal structures and institutions play a significant role inpromoting the human rights. Inequality in the society emanates fromthe abuse of human rights. Human rights are abused in various formseither directly or indirectly. Biased actions and discrimination areexamples of direct abuse of human rights. Laws, religious values, andtraditions can lead to indirect abuse of human rights. Abuse of humanrights degrades understanding in various societal aspects includingrelations and interactions among members of society andinstitutions(Kamali41).

Inconclusion, global restoration of religion as a rejoinder to waningsocial, political, and economic conditions began in the concludingpart of the twentieth century. It is evident that people from otherreligions misunderstand the Muslim faith. Most of the misconceptionshave led to the creation of a negative impression about the religion.It is crucial for the Muslim faithful to take a leading role increating awareness about their values and beliefs.Religiouspractices need to enhance human interaction. It is, for this reason,one observes that religious practices should respect other people’swishes for a peaceful existence. The approach should be devoid of thereligious intolerance that has taken various forms in all societiesand continues to manifest in the contemporary world. Peoplehave diverse interests, and it is felt that this can be realized whenone is within the confines of authority. The societal establishmentsare essentially different reflecting national socioeconomic andpolitical cultures and, indeed, historical trends.It is crucial to create an auxiliary institution that will representthe main groups within the Muslim society that include governments,private traders and civil society movements. The realization ofpleasant relations in the world is dependent on the formulation ofharmonized policies that cut across religion and nationality. Theparticipation of women in Islamic critic and activism has emerged dueto the increased need to eliminate practices and beliefs thatdiscriminates against women. It is also a reflection that Islam hasnot yet accepted modernity.


Cooper,William W, and Piyu Yue. Challengesof the Muslim World: Present, Future and Past.Bradford: Emerald Group Pub, 2008. Internet resource.

Davidson,Lawrence. IslamicFundamentalism: An Introduction.Santa Barbara: Praeger, 2013. Print.

Engineer,Asghar A. TheRights of Women in Islam.New Delhi [India: Sterling, 2008. Print.

Haddad,Yvonne Y. IslamicLaw and the Challenges of Modernity.Walnut Creek [u.a.: AltaMira Press, 2004. Print.

Kamali,Mohammad H. TheDignity of Man: An Islamic Perspective.Cambridge: Islamic Texts Society, 2002. Print.

KhanH.Nasiruddin. “Challening Myths and Misconceptions: CommunicatingWome`s Right in Islam.” MuslimSocieties Journal 5.2(2012): 48-53. Print.

Lovat,Terry. Womenin Islam: Reflections on Historical and Contemporary Research.Dordrecht: Springer, 2012. Internet resource.

Maroney,Eric. ReligiousSyncretism.London: SCM Press, 2006. Print.

Masud,Muhammad K, Armando Salvatore, and Martin . Bruinessen. Islamand Modernity: Key Issues and Debates.Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2009. Print.

Shehadeh,Lamia R. TheIdea of Women in Fundamentalist Islam.Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2003. Internet resource.

Subedi,Binaya. CriticalGlobal Perspectives: Rethinking Knowledge About Global Societies.Charlotte, NC: Information Age Pub, 2010. Print.

Sultan,Wafa.AGod Who Hates: The Courageous Woman Who Inflamed the Muslim WorldSpeaks Out against the Evils of Islam.New York: St. Martin`s Press, 2013. Internet resource.

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Technologycan be described as the collection or rather combination of skills,processes, techniques as well as mechanisms utilized to produce goodsand services. They can also assist in accomplishing certainobjectives like scientific investigation among others. Technology hasplayed a major role in the improvement of economies across the globe.Technological advancements exist in several aspects. In that respect,it is due to advancement in technology that different areas haveimproved significantly. Examples of sectors that have benefited fromtechnological advancements include the military, transport andcommunication, education, governance among others. Technologicaladvancements have smoothened the means of transport andcommunication, strengthened the military, and improved the educationsystems and many other benefits. The advent of technology cannot beentirely traced i.e. people used different mechanisms in the pastcenturies. For instance, transportation was mainly in horse drivencarts, then came the steam engines and later electric trains.

Takinga look at the American history, advancement in technology have beentremendous over the years. The United States is regarded as asuperpower due to the technological superiority they have in varioussectors. For instance, they have one of the best military systems,transport and communication facilities, medical facilities,telecommunication facilities and many others. Their superiority inthis vital sectors defines their notion as a global superpower. Thispaper will look to ascertain the various technological advancementsover the years. It will majorly entail advancements from the year1865 to date. To elaborate the various improvements, the paper willoutline the various sectors that have directly or indirectlybenefited from advancements in technology. It is also vital tooutline the benefits of improvements in technology on the humanbeings and other related organisms. For example, an improvement inthe medical sectors is replicated by a corresponding improvement inthe quality of life. Even though advancements have been quitehelpful, they also pose several challenges. Acts of terrorism haveincreased, hacking hence interfering with people privacy, diseasesrelated to radioactivity such as cancer have been on the rise amongothers. Though the challenges are quite vast, the benefits tend tooutweigh them. A technologically sound nation tends to beeconomically better than less technologized ones.

Trendsin technological growth from the year 1865 to 1915 covers theprogressive era and the reconstruction and the gilded age whichincludes the transformation of labor and industry arising fromimmigration which was a major provision of labor in the agricultureand industry expansion in the United States and an increase in theproduction of goods. Reconstruction period which ended in the year1877, whereby the federal government controlled the southern statesand this led the United States becoming a powerful and united nationhaving solid national 1865, printing press introducedby William Bullock used for feeding paper and printing both sides atonce. In 1867, Lucien Kent invented a product for closing in cattleinto individual lands which were privately owned.

Railroadmileage doubled from 1865-1873, the first transcontinental railroadin 1869, led to far west ranching and mining regions. The railroadsat that time provided transportation means for the immigrants andalso provided access to remote lands. In addition, the constructionof railway enhanced opportunities for credit, would-be farmers 1872, Andrew Carnegie built a steel plant where he sawenormous profits in which he used the rail lines to transport the oreand core to his plant. The railroads innovation led to an increase inthe demand of steel and iron needed for the production of heavy railsfor the construction of railroads.

Telephoneand telegraph system innovation enabled managers to communicate overlong distances, this innovation was invented by Alexander Graham Bellin 1874 where he made his research on a device which could reproduceand transmit sound over the electrical cable .the first switchboardwas produced and the construction of the first telephone line wasdone between 1877 and 1878. In 1885, the American telegraph andtelephone company was created which dominated the telecommunications.

Inthe early 1880s generating power plants which supplied power began tospread and replaced the gas and oil used in outdoor lighting, thissystems were based on high voltage alternating current or directcurrent. Thomas Edison came up with a system used for indoor lightingthat provided competition to the gas lighting and was based on highlong-lasting resistance bulb which rather ran on low voltage. Inaddition, electric motors became an important necessity in theindustry which replaced the steam engines since they neither requiredwater sources as they did not use steam boilers nor did they requirecomplicate mechanical transmissions. Furthermore, introduction oftransformer allowed transmission of alternating current over verylong distances at high voltage with higher efficiency. This highvoltage was the stepped down in order to supply domestic andcommercial lighting.

Theprogressive era ran from 1890-1919 and he started with theintroduction traffic sign which was erected on road junctions. Thisroad sign instructed drivers to either stop or proceed given the roadis clear. This was developed in 1890 by Williams Enno who devised andproposed set of traffic laws however this signs were not used until1915. Within the same year tabulating machine was invented by HermanHollerith which was used for processing and storing statistical anddemographic information during the addition, shredded wheatwas invented by Henry Perky and also a Babcock test invented byStephen Moulton was used in determining the content of fat present inmilk. Smoke detector used for detecting smoke and issuing a signalwhich operated by either physical process or optical detection.

In1891, Ferris wheel was invented which has passenger gondolas, dowprocess for extraction of bromine from brine, tesla coil invented byNikola Tesla in which Tesla used to conduct experiments in x-raygeneration, electrical lighting and electrotherapy using these coils.Rotary dial designed to for sending electrical pulses was mounted onthe switchboard or on the telephone was invented, pastry fork wasdesigned for the purpose of eating desserts wen holding the plate,Schrader valve used on bicycle and automobile pneumatic tires withbodies and threads standard size.

Inthe year 1892, invention of dimmers for varying the brightness of thelight by increasing or decreasing the voltage with the intention ofcontrolling the lighting intensity, internal combustion poweredtractor for hauling machinery and trailers for construction andagriculture, spectroheliograph an instrument that capturesphotographic image by astronauts of the sun and telephone network wasfurther expanded by introduction of automated telephone switchingwhich eliminated manual connection of calls. In 1893, pinking shearswere invented used for cutting woven and have blades which are notstraight but rather saw toothed. In 1894, mousetrap for catching micewas designed and usually set in location of suspected rodents’infestation, medical gloves used in medical examinations forpreventing contamination between patients and caregivers.

Cyclocomputerfor displaying and calculating information mounted on the handlebarof a bicycle and clip-less pedal for special cycling were invented in1895. Inventions of 1897 were the cotton candy, a muffler used forreducing the noise level from machines, tapered roller bearings forsustaining radial large forces, charcoal briquette for starting andmaintaining fire during preparation of food.1898 inventions includethe remote control for operating machines like television with thehelp of radio control and infrared signals, semi-automatic shotgunused by soldiers, installer bit, sousaphone and filling cabinet forstoring documents in folders.1899 invention are flash lamp fortriggering the explosive powder and wind warping which produce alateral control on the aircraft.

Nickel-zincbattery was invented in the 1900 by Thomas Edison and is arechargeable battery used in cordless telephone, digital camera,electric bikes, garden tools and flashlights and also within the sameyear were other inventions such as carbide lamp that burn and produceacetylene, fly swatter for killing and swatting insects, thumbtackfor fastening documents for public display and a Merrill-Croweprocess invented by Charles Washington for separating gold in cyanidesolution.

Radiodirection finder invention in 1901 enabled better navigation foraircraft, small boats ships with the help of its ability oftravelling long addition was the invention of theassembly line for assembling parts in a sequential way in order tocreate a final product, this process has the advantage of reducingtime hence reducing the labor cost and the production material andultimately the reduction in the price of the product.

Airconditioning of rooms inside building was a major invention in 1902through provision of cooling by having control on temperature,ventilation, humidity and air quality. Also the invention of themercury arc valve that provides conversion of alternating current todirect current and were used as rectifiers in electric railways andas power supplies for electric motors. Airplane invention between1903 and 1914 was first made by the Wright Brothers which theyachieved manned, controlled and sustained 1914, theairplanes became important to the US government for war that requiredaerial bombing, aerial reconnaissance and dogfighting.

Technologyadvancement between 1916 to date

Themilitary is one sector that has been experiencing major technologicaladvancements over the years. After improvement of war machines suchas machine guns, armored tanks, poisonous gas, airplanes as well assubmarines in 1917, the U.S. troops headed to the battlefields ofEurope creating one of the bloodiest conflicts in history. Militaryofficers opted out of traditional mechanisms of war. Nuclear weaponrywas a major invention during World War II. In what was termed asManhattan Project, the United States, Canada and United Kingdomcombined to invent an atomic bomb owing to the invention made duringthe 1930s. The destructive outcome followed afterwards when Japan washit by the bombs thereby ending the pacific war. In later years,developments continued and hydrogen bombs came about, which were evenmore dangerous. Military weaponry such as nuclear armor are mainlyutilized by States to portray their political superiority i.e.nations strength. The MGR-1 Honest John is the first nuclear-tippedrocket deployed by the United States in 1953. They possessed shortranges and could only be utilized under particular kinds of militaryconditions. The technological possibilities entailed in nuclearwarfare is quite devastating hence the thought that future wars onthe same are close to impossible. Up to date, States have signedtreaties barring nuclear tests or even developing nuclear weaponry.

Thecomputer revolution is another aspect of innovation that has improvedsignificantly over the years. The 1990s era was deemed as a rise tothe new economy. This is because computers as well as the internetproduced a wide range efficiencies and production of information.Information could also traverse many channels with ease. The adventof computers can be traced back to World War II. Mechanical analogcomputers systems were mainly utilized for certain military taskslike calculating torpedo aiming among others. Clifford Berry and JohnAtanasoff from the Iowa state college came up with the firstprototype of the digital computer in 1939. The computer could storedata, perform additions and subtractions utilizing binary codes.Initial computers i.e. mainframe computers could cover large roomsand consume large amounts of power as compared to current personalcomputers. However, the need to conduct space programs in the 1960smade it necessary to develop the computer technology. Development ofmicrochips made it possible the creation of new products such asvideocassette recorders, cellular phones, video games, as well asvideo cameras. The devices came at affordable prices. It is believedthat the computers transformed the life of Americans. During the1980s, companies such as IBM and Apple began marketing computers forhome use and businesses as well. As the years progressed, thecomputers were more compact, faster and inexpensive hence finding wayinto businesses premises of various kinds. Occupations such asbanking, clerical work, architectural designs, factory production andmedical diagnosis utilized computers hence transforming the Americanlifestyle in various facets. By the year 2000, almost all Americanspossessed personal computers utilizing them for shopping, sending andreceiving mails and entertainment as well [ CITATION Eri13 l 1033 ].

Theinternet also developed at a tremendous rate and was utilized inmilitary communications, commercial as well as individual use. Itgenerally expanded information flow thereby instigating radicalcommunications. At this particular time, televisions stations,publishing houses as well as newspaper ownership were mainly handledby few giants. However, with the internet, the trend changeddrastically, since anyone could post and share information throughthe internet [ CITATION Eri13 l 1033 ].

Medicalfacets of technology is one vital area. Improvements in medicalsystems generally lead to a better lifestyle. Technological growthhave led to cancer detection at early stages and subsequentmaintenance of the same. The medical field has experienced change inareas such as needle-free diabetes care. It is pain free and dealswith frequent insulin shots hence preventing risks such as infectionsdue to poking that may arise. The robotic checkups have also beenquite helpful in improving the quality of life. The technologiesbecame common in the 1990s due to the increased need of specializedmedical care. In 1957, Dr. Albert sadin came up with a polio vaccinethat went along to put an end to the world wide polio epidemic.Currently, the state of medical facilities is quite up to date, withthe only problem being their adequacy.

Anotherarea that has experienced great progress is the telecommunicationsector. The current world requires a stable telecommunication system.The mobile networks have been growing over the years. The firstgeneration (1G) mobile networks were developed in the early 1980s andused analog modulation e.g. the AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System)in the United States. They were meant to attain maximum coverageutilizing as few antennas as possible. The second generation (2G)mobile networks was introduced in 1987 and used the GSM (GlobalSystem for Mobile Communication). The coverage area, capacity andquality was greatly improved with this system. The 2.5 generationfollowed up with enhanced data for GSM, General Packet Radio Service(GPRS) and High Speed Circuit-Switched Data (HSCSD). At thisjuncture, most mobile networks could only support voice and datatransfer at limited speeds. The Third generation (3G) networks’brought about support for voice, messaging i.e. email, fax etc.medium rate multimedia file and video transfer, global roaming aswell high rate interactive multimedia. All through the evolution ofthe mobile networks, the methodologies used in enabling the samechanged accordingly. For instance, the channel access methods changeddepending on the mechanisms used. The methods ranged from frequencydivision multiplexing, time division multiplexing and code divisionmultiplexing. The 4G networks enabled interleaving of both voice anddata in one channel. Channel capacity were subsequently increased.Additionally, data and voice speeds were considerably increased [ CITATION Ani11 l 1033 ].

Thetransportation and energy sector has also progressed considerably.The common mode of transport during the 18thcentury mainly entailed horse driven carts. This was before theinvention of steam engines generated from combustible energy sourcessuch as coal and wood. Additionally, the major sources of energyduring this times involved coal. Currently, some countries haveembraced nuclear energy though with a cautious approach due to theimpacts involved.

Negativeimpacts of advancements in technology

Theimpacts of technology growth are quite vast. The most common isclimate change. Technological growth has led to a highlyindustrialized globe that tend to go against the laws of nature. Theeffects include unpredictable weather patterns such as droughts,floods among others. Cyber threats have also been on the rise due tothe deep knowledge in computer matters. Innovations such as nuclearpose health hazards since they are cancerous.

Inconclusion, the technological growth is quite essential in anycountry’s economy. Though the challenges are also quite many, thepros outweigh them. As portrayed in the current way of life, theadvancements are bound to continue.


Anil K. Maini, Varsh Agrawal. Satellite Technology principles and applications. John Wiley &amp Sons ltd, 2011.

Foner, Eric. Give me Liberty: An American History(Volume 2). New York, 2013.

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