Hypercalcemia and Hypocalcaemia

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HYPERCALCAEMIA AND HYPOCALCAEMIA 3

Hypercalcemiaand Hypocalcaemia

Descriptionof the electrolyte disorder

Hypercalcemiais caused by a buildup of calcium in the body (Peter,Mishra &amp Fraser, 2004).On the other hand, hypocalcaemia is caused by calcium deficiency inthe body.

Potentialcauses

Accordingto Buttaro, Trybulski &amp Polgar, and others, et al, Parathyroidhormone (PTH) and vitamin D are essential in balancing calcium in theblood (2013). PTH is produced by the parathyroid glands. If PTH isproduced in excess it leads to hyperparathyroidism, which causeshypercalcaemia. When the parathyroid glands produce inadequate PTH itcauses hypoparathyroidism that leads to hypocalcaemia (Buttaro,Trybulski &amp Polgar, et al., 2013).

Isthe electrolyte disorder iatrogenic or caused by drug prescription?

Bothdisorder are iatrogenic and but can also develop as a result ofprescribed drugs. A study by Liamis,,Milionis &amp Elisaf in 2009 found out thatexcessive intake of calcium through supplements especially amongmiddle-aged women approaching their menopause is a major cause ofhypercalcaemia. Hypercalcaemia can also be an inherited disease thataffects the body’s ability to regulate calcium. According toLiamis,Milionis &amp Elisaf,excessive intake of calcium in the diet or as supplement can lead tothis. Other conditions such as renal failure and being bed-ridden fora long time can cause hypercalcemia (2009).

Symptomsand signs

Someof the hypercalcemia’s symptoms include: constipation, vomiting,poor appetite, frequent urination, muscle twitches, memory loss, andbowing of shoulders among others. According to Buttaro, Trybulski &ampPolgar, et al., (2013), if the condition is left untreated it cancause severe complications such as kidney stone, kidney failure, highblood pressure, osteoporosis and depression. The disorder should beimmediately treated since it can eventually cause death.Hypocalcaemia in the early stages has no definite signs and symptoms.However, as the condition progresses it is characterized by symptomssuch as: memory loss, depression, numbness and tingling in the limbsand face, hallucinations and muscle spasms (Buttaro, Trybulski &ampPolgar, et al., 2013).

Impactsof the Hypocalcaemia and hypercalcaemia on the body

canhave various impacts on the body such as blindness, abnormalheartbeat and brittle bones. Just like hypercalcaemia, ifhypocalcaemia is left untreated, it can cause death.

References

Buttaro,T. M., Trybulski, J., Polgar Bailey, P., &amp Sandberg-Cook, J.(2013). Primary care: A collaborative practice (4th ed.). St. Louis,MO: Mosby.

Liamis,G., Milionis, H. J., &amp Elisaf, M. (2009). A review ofdrug-induced hypocalcemia. Journalof bone and mineral metabolism,27(6),635-642.

Peter,R., Mishra, V., &amp Fraser, W. D. (2004). Lesson of the week:Severe hypocalcaemia after being given intravenous bisphosphonate.BMJ:British Medical Journal, 328(7435),335.

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