Historyof Art Market
Artis involved in many areas such as sculpture, printmaking, fashion,advertising, script, and photography. It is here that lifelessperspective was used as an approach to disengage the influence ofimagination. Artists are largely imaginativeindividuals who try to createthe fissure between reality and illusion. Consumption of art in the19thcentury had divergent meanings and experiences. In examining theParisian consumption, it is essential to assess the metropolitanculture, entertainment, advertising, and shop displays. Women hadgreat contribution in the advancement of the consumer culture. Visualculture materialized in the mid-19thcentury in Paris. Consumer culture had a great connection with womenwhere the Impressionist art was commercialized. The history of artwas represented in broader approaches to offer a differentperspective in response to the changing sphere of art.
Boththe Impressionist paintings and Parisian consumerism were recognizedas the emergence of modern city and art. The two shaped the visualculture at the time, including the formation of fashion, gender, andidentity. The visual themes reflected the ideals of the Parisiansociety at the time. There was great association between women andconsumer culture in Paris.
Inthe 18thcentury, there was a revolution in the political sphere that shapedthe social ideals. Both political and artistic rhetorics had similartones as evidenced in many paintings1.All these features had significance on the women Impressionistpaintings. Most of the artwork gave male experiences, ignoring thecontribution of women. From the Impressionist paintings andmodernity, we learn that women were portrayed as spectators andobjects of display. The displays integrated an elaborate sense ofimagination in artwork that produced meticulous designs. Seuratcreated innovative designs that were mostly influenced by theImpressionists. The images in Paris show the experimentation withcolor to create various designs. The images represented differentaspects of women life and depiction by the society2.
Impressionistpaintings can be used to explain the social differences and tensionsin the societies. The creations captivate the imagination and mind ofthe world in a big way. The representation of the drawings enlightenand display hopes, frustrations, and aspirations of the givencommunity. The simplicity and attractiveness of the traditionalartwork offer insightful information to the contemporary society. Asmuch as different artworks are in the same brackets of presentation,it is important to note that this field has undergone drastic changeswith the general changes in the societal and cultural settings. Inthe contemporary society, the importance of artwork is seen throughthe adoption of main themes that seek to promote the society’sinterests3.
Inthe modern era, women have participated in revolutionalizingconsumerism, advertising images, and displays. The trend has featuresof the Impressionist painting. In the 19thcentury, there was considerable consumption of Impressionistpaintings. Researchers in the field indicate that the advertisementsin the journals, magazines, and posters represented the consumerculture in the society. The images and displays are a response to theartwork in the form of contemporary culture. Caricatures developed byartists appear like mocking the Impressionist paintings.
Inthe 19thcentury, women experienced consumer culture through advertisementsand stores in Paris. Female shoppers and art writing influenced womento act as agents of Impressionist paintings. Women are represented aschoreographers and spectators of these displays. Some women such asMaryCassatt were active as spectators and choreographers. Cassatt had herpublic displays in adverts and boutiques. Itwas not easy for women as the society would see the displays assexual solicitations. The careful staging of products and exhibitionsinfluenced the consumerism culture. The culture persuaded individualsto look at the adverts, staged entertainments, and shop windowswithin the city.
Thedepiction of the fashion industry in paintings in places such asboutiques and shops reflects the involvement of women in modern art.Iskin(2007) stresses the portrayal of the products in the adverts andshops while seeking to downplay the sexual solicitations. as such,she tries to advocate for the social standing of women. Woman arerepresented as clients, entrepreneurs, and employees in the images.The French tradition on landscape art, for instance, influenced theconcept in Europe. During the time, the Impressionistsstarted adopting the style in their paintings. In fact, they usedlandscape painting as a stylistic concept in most of their paintingworks. Some of the paintings expressed the nationalism. Iskin, forexample, argues that Parisiennewas a hero in both the Impressionist paintings and mass media4.She helped promote the French culture and taste. The government alsoused the artists to promote unity and French identity.
Anotherimportant point that Iskinexamines is the exploration of gender and exclusion of women in thepublic places. Women were represented as objects of display hencelosing the real picture about the paintings5.TheImpressionist paintings portray women consumers as spectators whowould often gaze at the products hence creating a modern perspective.Fashion business gave women visibility because of their beauty anddesires. Critics who advocated for Impressionist paintings dislikedthe consumer culture.Flâneur was important in pictures displayed on the streets of Paris.The name was linked to urban explorer that had elements of urban andmodern experiences. It was an important symbol for artists. However,the concept gave many accounts and experiences of men. It ignored thecontribution of women. Writings from Baudelaire and Simmel alsofailed to show the association of women with modernity6.
Womenfashion arbitrated between the private and public life. In privatelife, images reflect the inner women and their desires es[ecially ondressing and beauty7.In public, the images are commercialized with women acting asspectators. Their representation as objects of display reflected thesociety’s view about women. Some feminists were sceptical andsought to create a different picture where women would be regarded asactors and consumers. Some of the public displays include adverts andboutiques. Besidesthe interior scenes, consumer exchange was evident in the exterioroutlooks. Markets, outdoors, and urban sidewalks had paintings thatreflected modern art and consumerism. Large adverts and illuminatedwindows were visible along the streets. Iskin(2007) asserts that the Impressionists did not document the exactappearances in the shop signs. She argues that the Impressionistswere hesitant about the consumer culture that was changing by theday. Displays in the streets and markets were signs of the changingconsumer culture in Paris.
Someartists such as Baudelairce advocated for that would champion formodernity. He asserted that fashion was a portrayal of humancreativity and modern art. Women thus adopted new behaviors and stylethat modernized paintings8.Elegance in women, according to Baudelairce, was a sign of modernityand a new era in consumer culture. Paris offered women with manysites for viewing and shopping in the 19thcentury. Their appearance showed the changing behavior and consumerculture in the society. One striking observation was that womenengaged in shopping seriously compared to men. On his part, Degas wasmostly interested with milliners who he believed shared social space.He would later engage in ‘artistry of the modiste’ due to angerabout the changing culture.
EdgarDegas was among the artists who placed themselves as realists. He hadgreat contribution towards modernizing the paintings. Degas had sgreat interest in scenes in theaters that were illuminated by visiblelight. His choices reflected modernity where he loved ballet dancersand Parisian denizens. Degas drew inspiration from artistic traditionand outside influences that he later re-interpreted in innovativeapproaches. Trade and Japanese prints significantly influenced hisart. Degas created over 20 drawings and paintings of the millineryshops. His paintings showed great concern for the struggles of womenin the society. The displays laid emphasis on the creative andartistic elements of an image thereby, helping artists to explaintheir objectives to the audience. Using creative and artisticstandards, Degas would articulate issues more efficiently. Hispaintings showed all the elements that he gained throughout his lifeas an artist including his Impressionist ideals. He is known to havemaintained frequency in art compared to other modern artists. One ofhis displays on milliner`s private life lays emphasis on difficultiesin their work. It is true that Parisian women faced difficulties dueto the cultural beliefs at the time. Further, his paintingsconcentrated on fashion, figures of modiste, and spectator, amongothers. For the art lovers, his painting works were a breathtakingpiece that integrated his limitless and fantastic sense ofimagination with his meticulous and perfect technique of painting9.Most of these paintings reflect the inclusion of portrayal of womenby the society. Women played a significant role in fashionconsumerism in the Parisian society. The contribution of consumerismhad great contribution on the advancements fromimpressionism to cubism and fauvism.
Paintingshave a great link to visual arts, literature, and music that have agreat relevance to natural sciences. In examining the history of art,it is necessary to assess the characteristics of the designs and theinfluences. The autonomyof the woman in Impressionist painting and the culture history ofParisian consumption show the portrayal of women in the displays.Fashion in the 19thcentury was reflected in the adverts and shops. Nonetheless, womenwere mostly depicted as symbols of display with many displays showingthe men’s experiences. It was a significant period as womenportrayed their prowess that defined the pleasant outlook on eithergender. Modernism in art contributed to the reform process ofdesigns. Both the consumers and designers contemplated the artisticprospects of the applied arts. They advocated for higher standards inthe creation of artwork to conform to the contemporary environmentand ideals. Postmodern artists combine the design and socialdisparagement with the idea that an artist ought to be a designer.The influence of the postmodern art is felt in both rural and urbanareas since the idea of designing was fundamental for most of thecitizens.
Chrisman-Campbell,Kimberly. "Review." Woman`sArt Journal30, no. 2 (2009): 37-42.
Green,Nicholas. Circuits of Production, Circuits of Consumption: The Caseof Mid-Nineteenth-Century French Art Dealing, in ArtJournal 48,No.1, (1989): 29-34.
Huyssen,Andreas. Afterthe great divide: modernism, mass culture, postmodernism.Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986.
Iskin,Ruth E. ModernWomen and Parisian Consumer Culture in Impressionist Painting.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Kinney,Leila W. "Genre: A Social Contract?" ArtJournal46, no. 4 (1987): 267-277.
Perrot,Philippe. Fashioningthe bourgeoisie: a history of clothing in the nineteenth century.Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1994.
Reff,Theodore, and Edgar Degas. Thenotebooks of Edgar Degas: a catalogue of the thirty-eight notebooksin the Bibliothèque Nationale and other collections.New York: Hacker Art Books, 1985.
1 Kinney, "Genre," 268.
2 Reff, The notebooks of Edgar Degas, 17.
3 Huyssen, After the great divide,9 -10.
4 Iskin, Modern Women and Parisian Consumer Culture, 4.
5 Iskin, Modern Women and Parisian Consumer Culture, 5.
6 Reff, and Degas, The notebooks of Edgar Degas, 38.
Perrot, Fashioning the bourgeoisie, p. 12.
8 Green, “Circuits of Production, Circuits of Consumption,” 32- 34.
9 Chrisman-Campbell, "Review," 39 – 41.