Describeand give an example of strategic leadership.
Strategicleadership entails the use of well evaluated and planned tactics toemphasize a vision for a corporation or some of its components. Itinvolves the management motivation and persuasion of theorganization labor force with the aim of making them share the samevision as their organization (Kachra,2012).Strategic leadership is a critical tool for promoting organizationalchange or modifying organization structures to achieve certainobjectives. Typically, as Burgelman(2014) asserts,it works by influencing the other people in an organization to makeself-driven day to day decisions that will promote long-term growthof the organization while still maintaining its short-term financialstability.
Anexample of this leadership style in use is a school principalplanning working to improve the academic performance of his school.Strategic leadership has three components namely what should be done,who will do it and how it shall be done (Goetsch & Davis, 2014). In such a case, improving the academic performance is what needs tobe done. The people who will help do this include the school head,the members of staff, students and their parents. Implementing thisstrategic leadership plan will involve strategic thinking, acting andinfluencing. Strategic thinking gives the vision of what needs to beachieved and what is hindering it. Strategic acting involvescoordinated effort to implement the outcomes of strategic thinking.Strategic influencing will enable the school head to createcommitment towards the set goals in the school.
Describethe three levels of corporate culture.
Corporateculture consists of three related levels (Alvesson, 2012). Proposedby Edgard Schein in 1996, these levels are artifacts, espousedvalues, and basic underlying assumptions. These levels gave afoundation that facilitated the definition of organization orcorporate culture.
Artifactsare the outermost level of organizational culture that at thesurface. They refer to the visible or tangible aspects oforganizational culture that are easy to discern but not easilyunderstood (Warnecke, 2012). Espoused values form the intermediatelevel between the inner and outer levels of organization culture.This level contains the values, standards, and goals that are sharedby all people and departments in the organization. Purce (2014) addsthat they also include the organization’s strategies, goals, andphilosophies. At the core of corporate culture, lies the basicassumptions level that is the ultimate source of values and actionsthat keep the organization alive. They are hard to discern becausethey are found in a mainly unconscious level of corporate culture.They reflect thoughts and beliefs pertaining human nature such astruth, relationships, and productivity.
Discusshow leaders can develop ethical values in organizations.
Leadersin any organization have the responsibility to promote and protectthe organization’s ethics, especially to their staff (Northouse,2015).The best way they can achieve this goal is by acting as good rolemodels that others can emulate as far as ethical values areconcerned. Leaders can employ several approaches to develop thedesires ethical values in their organizations. First, they must obeythe rules of the organization and create distinct boundaries forethical standards. This intervention will give the employees a guideto follow on matters ethics (Ciulla, 2014). Secondly, leaders shouldevaluate the characters of their staff when hiring, retaining andpromoting employees. This measure will embed the values of theorganizations into the minds of its personnel.
Asmentioned earlier, leaders should use their actions to portray thenecessity of upholding the organization’s ethical standards totheir staff. Lastly, leaders should constantly evaluate issues raisedby staff and other stakeholders to confirm whether the operations oftheir organization are in sync with their ethical values (Daft,2014). Simply put, leaders should lead by setting a good exampleproviding avenues for addressing ethical violations and rewardingintegrity as an incentive.
Discussthe eight stage model of planned organizational change.
Theeight-step model of planned organization change was developed byKotter in 1995. In the model, he outlined eight crucial steps thathelp achieve organizational change as explained below
Establishing a sense of urgency – This involves probing the market and competitive situation, identifying crises and opportunities to catalysts of change (Garvin, 2012).
Building a coalition – Pertains assembling a team capable of leading the change and developing strategies to achieve the change.
Forming a strategic vision – It gives the change a sense of direction and developing strategies to attain the vision (Leonard & McGuire, 2007).
Communicating the vision – Involves using all available channels including the utilization of a guiding coalition and exemplary leadership.
Enabling action – Removes obstacles and empowering others to act, encouraging risk taking and modifying systems that may hinder the change.
Generate short term wins – Involves planning for measurable performance indicators and creating incentives for well-performing employees (Burke, 2013).
Sustaining acceleration – Creates conditions and systems that will help achieve the desired change, for example, hiring and training employees in line with the vision.
Institutional change – Institutionalizing the new approaches and creating avenues to ensure sustainability of the new changes brought to the organization.
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