Evolution of Terrorism

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Evolutionof Terrorism

Terrorismcan be described in various ways depending on the scope, cause andextent. However, the most logical definition entails violent actscommitted by individuals or group of persons who deem themselvesmarginalized owing to historical events. The causes of terrorism alsovary across the globe but there effects are more likely the same.This paper will look to outline the various effects of terrorism ontoday’s society. It is evident that the societal effects ofterrorism are quite vast with the commonest one being a failedeconomy. By looking at various aspects of terrorism, the paper willillustrate its major causes. It is also appropriate to describe thedifferent aspects such as failing states, attitudes of suicidebombers, informal economy and the meaning of term hate in the globalcontext.

Terrorismis an intricate issue to understand. Its major purpose entails usingthreats of violence to intimidate societies or governments with theaim of achieving religious, ideological or political gains. In thatrespect, any attempt to sympathize, comfort or aid with a commonenemy is deemed as terrorism to some extent. War and terror closelyrelated. The terror practice are categorized into three components.They include

  1. Seizing action i.e. horror, revulsion, shock or fear

  2. Relaying the message

  3. Fight or flight i.e. response accorded to terrorism

Failingstates and consequences towards the international security

Failingstates can be described as nations/sates that has a political systemwhich is disjointed to a certain level where basic responsibilitiesof an independent government no longer function appropriately. Thedisjointed condition poses a great threat to the society leading todegradation of lifestyle as well as a weakened government that cancollapse. Failing states pose a huge threat to the stability ofinternational security in several ways [ CITATION Edw12 l 1033 ].

Failingstates can turn out to be safe harbors for terrorist groups, centersfor arm trade as well as drugs, and grounds where dangerous diseasesare bread. In the regional perspective, they can spread instabilityto neighboring countries, developing conflicts across them.Domestically, citizens cannot be assured of their security amongother essential needs. A growing number of failed states illustratesincrease in number of stateless territories that is internationallyrisky. States are generally a symbol of international governance [ CITATION Edw12 l 1033 ].

Asnoted above, a failed state is more likely to host criminally mindedindividuals. Terrorists tend to target this areas to conduct theirtrainings as well as plan for future events. A good example of failedstate in the African continent is Somalia. The nation has beenunstable for quite a long period and is regarded as a hot bed ofviolent related crimes. Terrorists have resorted to using the failedstate as a ground to train and smuggle illegal arms that are usedviolently against innocent individuals. Acts that have followedinclude piracy in the Indian Ocean as well as acts of terror inneighboring countries such Kenya. The unstable nature of Somalia hasspilled over to neighboring countries like Kenya and Uganda and endsup affecting their security capabilities [CITATION Uni04 l 1033 ].

Repercussionsof failed states are also felt immensely by the residents. Basicneeds such as healthcare, access to food and housing among othersbecome hard to acquire. Other areas that are negatively impactedinclude trade, businesses among others. Generally, a failed state iseconomically challenged and the living standards are quite low. Thenation ends up being depleted in various aspects. Some individualsare forced to escape their homelands for neighboring countries insearch of proper living standards. As evidenced in many refugeecamps, individuals live in desperation with challenges in foodsupplies, medical care and education [ CITATION Edw12 l 1033 ].

Anothermajor issue among failed state is the recruitment of under-agedindividuals to join the terrorist course. Young ones are depleted offeducation to join training camps at tender ages. In some cases, theycan be brainwashed and become convinced their course is justified. Inthat respect, a failed nation lives in fear of the future i.e. theymay lack a future generation if most of their kids are recruited intothis terrorist groups. The recruitment issue is also a threat toneighboring nations since in most cases it is bound to spill over [ CITATION Edw12 l 1033 ].

Drugtrafficking in failed nations is also quite high. Drug traffickerstarget failed nations as a ground to grow or stock drugs. This leadsto formation of cartels that share common ideologies i.e. distributedrugs no matter the consequences. The cartels indulge in violent actsthat pose a huge threat to the citizens. Since the drug traffickersshare same ideologies, their acts of violence can be considered asterrorism. They lead to numerous deaths and injuries on innocentcitizens.

Interventionsare required in cases of failed states. Probably the interventionprocedures can work depending on the mechanism used. For instance,Sierra Leone, British paratroopers were able to restore some level ofsecurity. The negative impact of interventions tend to be resourceallocation. Whenever another nation intervenes to restore sovereigntyof a state, it allocates a substantial amount of resources i.e. arms,cash as well as soldiers to bring order. This may take a toll on theintervening nation and impact negatively on their economy.

Beliefsand attitudes of suicide bombers

Asuicide bomber is an individual who intentionally attacks people withthe aim of killing, destroying property without expecting to survivein the process. Most of them wear suicide vests and detonate them inpublic areas having many people such as malls, huge buildings etc.The attitudes and beliefs of suicide bombers are quite vast. Somepeople tend to believe suicide bombers are born but majority believethey are made.

Asportrayed in many research studies, suicide bombers are made and notnecessarily born. Some opt to join terror groups as an act ofdesperation due to limited education, poverty and unemployment amongothers. Poverty is regarded as the major cause of bulging terrorgroups. Individuals joining the terror groups are challenged in termsof accessing basic commodities such as food, shelter and clothing. Insearch of better lives, they become extremists to benefit theirfamilies. As evidenced by recent research, students from campuses inKenya end up joining the Alshabab group without their parents’knowledge. In some cases, the terror groups recruit graduates andinstill them into their cultures [ CITATION Kru07 l 1033 ].

Lackof education and economic deprivation has made individuals to adoptextreme opinions thereby joining terrorism. For instance, after theexplosions in the Landon transit system back in the July 2005, TonyBlair who was the Prime Minister stated that, whenever there isfanaticism, extremism and atrocious kinds of poverty in a continent,the repercussions are not fixed to that particular continent. Hissentiments were echoed by Bill Clinton and Jessica Stern a terroristexpert, who affirmed that lack of education or poverty areconsiderable origins of terrorism. However, some aspects of researchthink terrorism is a choice made by people like any other occupation.Just like people decide to be lawyers, doctors and pilots among otheroccupations, others just decide to be terrorist. This observationtends to discredit previous assumptions that terrorism is mainly anact of desperation due to poverty and limited education. It is quitehard to understand the reason behind this terrorist groups, but asper my assumptions, poverty plays a significant role in some regionsi.e. continent. Extremists from the different countries jointerrorism for different reasons that are not necessarily the same [ CITATION Kru07 l 1033 ].

Meaningof hate in the global security

Hatein the global security perspective is described as the wish or act ofone individual or group that another group does not exist. Itgenerally entails defending the existence of one particular groupdiscriminating against another. For example, some extremist Muslimgroups discriminate against the existence of Christians i.e. theyhate Christians. Additionally, some Christian groups hate Muslims.This hate leads to formation of extremist groups that resort to harmthe opposite religion to assert their dominance and prove theirexistence.

Hateis formed and manifested in various forms. As stated above, hate isdependent on various aspects. On feature is religion. Some parts ofthe globe experience acts of hate due to bad blood between Muslimsand Christians. One denomination hates against the other with eitherone of them believing they are the chosen group i.e. God’s people.In that respect, they dwell on hate speech always discrediting theexistence of the opposite religion thereby creating a strayedrelation. This results in formation of extremist groups that opt tofight against one another. The hate is manifested through slaying ofChristians in a Muslim populated area and killing of Muslims inChristian populated areas. One such war can be depicted in Nigeria,where Muslims are constantly at war with Christians [ CITATION Dor02 l 1033 ].

Anothercause of hate is political supremacy. One group may want to dominatepolitically over another resulting to differences that bring abouthate. Once groups are divided politically, it can result todestructive wars. A good example is Burundi where two opposing sidesdeveloped hate among them leading to severe war that caused deaths.The 1990s Rwanda genocide is another example of how hate can lead towars. Hate is also developed between countries either due to economicor political supremacy. One nation may want to be portrayed as moresuperior that another resulting to hate that may lead to wars. Forinstance, World War I and II.

Informaleconomy

Informaleconomy entails various sets of economic activities, jobs, workersand enterprises that are not protected or regulated by the state. Itis based on self-employment with no monitoring or taxation from thegovernment.

Theinformal economy is quite broad within many countries. It thereforeplays a huge role in the sustenance of a country’s economy due tothe number of people it employs. However, it also faces numerouschallenges especially in the negative roles it plays on undergroundorganizations. Many studies have portrayed the sector as vast but isa low income generating one. May people who dwell in the informalsector are poor but the amount of work done is quite hectic. Sincegovernments do not control them, they seem to dwell in extremepoverty which is a cause of illegal groups. Most people sector opt tojoin extremist groups to boost their earnings or as a sign ofdesperation. Some informal sector are deemed to sponsor extremistgroups with the aim of getting adequate returns once a fateful eventis successful. For instance, an extremist group may be funded by aninformal company to perform certain illegal events such as piracy andget a share of the money generated if the event is successful [ CITATION Kru07 l 1033 ].

References

Denning, D. E. (2002). ACTIVISM, HACKTIVISM, AND CYBERTERRORISM:THE INTERNET AS A TOOL FOR INFLUENCING FOREIGN POLICY. ACTIVISM, HACKTIVISM, AND CYBERTERRORISM:THE INTERNET AS A TOOL FOR INFLUENCING FOREIGN POLICY, 239-289.

Krueger, A. (2007). What Makes a Terrorist. What Makes a Terrorist.

Newman, E. (2012). Failed States and International Order: Constructing a Post-Westphalian World. Failed States and International Order: Constructing a Post-Westphalian World, 1-23.

United States Institute of Peace. (2004). Terrorism in the Horn of Africa. Washington DC.

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