DIABETES AND DRUG TREATMENTS 7
Diabetesand Drug Treatments
Sincethe beginning of the 21stcentury, there have been relentless efforts by governments andstakeholders to reduce cases of diabetes across the globe. In 2012,the prevalence for diabetes in the US was approximately 9.3% of thetotal population (representing 29.1 million people). Out of this,27.8% had not received any form of treatment (AmericanDiabetes Association, 2016). Thisnumber is expected to grow in the near future if enough civiceducation is not carried out in sensitizing people on the need formedical checkups. This paper will look at some aspects regardingvarious types of diabetes.
Question1: Explainthe differences between types of diabetes including type 1, type 2,gestational, and juvenile diabetes
Gestationaldiabetes occurs when pregnant women produce excess insulin in theirblood. The effect of insulin accumulation is partially blocked bydifferent hormones made in the placenta. The condition is calledinsulin resistance (Mellitus,2005). When the placenta supplies the growing fetus with water andnutrients from the mother’s circulation, it also produces differenthormones that aim to preserve the pregnancy. Gestational diabetesdiffers with other types of diabetes in that it begins duringpregnancy and ends after delivery. Complications arising fromgestational diabetes are manageable and preventable. The mainimportant aspect of control for gestational diabetes is carefulcontrol of blood sugar levels as soon as diagnosis process iscomplete (Hyppönen,ELäärä, Reunanen, Järvelin, & Virtanen, 2001). Unlike Type Idiabetes, gestational diabetes does not lead to birth defects. Theonly condition associated with gestational diabetes is thedevelopment of “macrosomia” in babies, which refers to the babybeing born larger than the normal size of babies.
Type1 Diabetes typically presents acutely in children and adolescentswith symptoms varying between three to four weeks. It occurs when anindividual have peripheral insulin resistance, a rise in plasmaglucagon levels, stimulating hepatic glycogenesis and glycolysis inthe body (Atkinson&Eisenbarth, 2001). The increased level of glucagon may sometimesstimulate the formation of ketone in the body. The rise of ketonefurther causes a condition called acidosis. Patients with Type 1diabetes, therefore, experience dehydration that stimulates theproduction of counter-regulatory hormones, including growth hormonessuch as catecholamine, cortisol, and other catabolic hormones thatare meant to resist the accumulation of insulin.
Juvenilediabetes is simply Type 1 Diabetes occurring children. In fact,further medical research has classified juvenile diabetes as a typeof Type 1 diabetes.
Type2 diabetes is a condition where a person’s loses the capacity toproduce enough insulin to control the level of blood sugar. Theproduction of insulin progressively diminishes for many years(probably twenty years). The pancreas, which is the body organ thatproduces insulin, has its insulin producing beta-cells impaired overa long time. Most patients are diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes whenalmost half of the beta-cells in the pancreas have lost the capacityto produce insulin. There are basically three inter-related factorsthat are responsible for Type 2 Diabetes. They all lead to theexhaustion of beta-cells in the pancreas. The first factor whenindividuals eat foods rich in sugars. Beta-cells produce insulinproportion to the sugar demands of the body. Thus, when the readilydigested foods with excess sugar get into the body, beta-cells haveto make insulin to meet demands of the body. Constant excessiveproduction of insulin exhausts beta-cells to the extent that theycannot keep up with demands of the body. The second fact or is whenbody cells become resistant to insulin by being insensitive.
Question2: Describeone type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected(Type2 Diabetes) including proper preparation and administration of this drug.Include dietary considerations related to treatment.
Drugscontaining Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GIP-1) are currently used tocontrol glucose levels in the body (Baggio&Drucker,2007). GLP-1 enhances glucose-induced insulin secretion and causesthe incretin effect. Incretin effect refers to improved insulinresponse that occurs more when glucose is administered orally thanintravenously. GPI-1 drugs have effects as well. It is usuallyabsent patients with Type 2 diabetes, but still stimulates insulinsecretion in type 2 diabetes at higher levels of plasmaconcentrations. GLP-1 causes the stimulation of glucose-dependentinsulin production by the beta-cells in the pancreas and animprovement in insulin biosynthesis and the improved transcription ofinsulin gene.
Type2 diabetes patients require foods and a lifestyle that stabilizesweight loss and weight gain and reduces blood sugar (Centersfor Disease Control and Prevention & Centers for Disease Controland Prevention,2011). Foods that have less ketosis such as lessstarch, lean meat, non-starchy vegetables, fruits, are fat-free milkrecommended of patients. The dietary considerations are complementedwith regular exercises.
Question3: Explainthe short-term and long-term impact of this diabetes on patientsincluding effects of drugs treatments.
Thetreatment of diabetes has short-term and long-term effects. Some ofthe effects are unpleasant and dangerous to the patient. Short-termeffects include, frequent urination, weakness, loss of coordination,blurred vision, and reduced ability to concentrate. Sometimes loss ofconscious may happen in the short-run especially when the blood sugarof the patient is very high or very low. Loss of consciousness ismore dangerous in insulin-dependent diabetic patients than those thatare noninsulin-dependent.
Thelong-term effects of diabetes include neuropathy especially amongType 1 and Type 2 diabetes patients, acute ketoacidosis, and acondition referred to as hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic Nonketotic Coma. The latter is a series of comas that are common in older patientsdue to precipitation of congestive heart problems.
AmericanDiabetes Association (2016). StatisticsAbout Diabetes.Available at http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/statistics/
Atkinson,M. A., &Eisenbarth, G. S. (2001). Type 1 diabetes: newperspectives on disease pathogenesis and treatment. TheLancet,358(9277), 221-229.
Baggio,L. L., &Drucker, D. J. (2007). Biologyof incretins: GLP-1 and GIP. Gastroenterology,132(6), 2131-2157.
Centersfor Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), & Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention (CDC). (2011). Nationaldiabetes fact sheet: national estimates and general information ondiabetes and prediabetes in the United States, 2011.Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers forDisease Control and Prevention, 201.
Hyppönen,E., Läärä, E., Reunanen, A., Järvelin, M. R., & Virtanen, S.M. (2001). Intake of vitamin D and risk of type 1 diabetes: abirth-cohort study. TheLancet,358(9292), 1500-1503.
Mellitus,D. (2005). Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus.Diabetescare,28, S37.