COLD WAR QUESTIONS 4
Theproxy wars between the two superpowers coincided with the nationalistmovements in Asia and Africa in that the two were competing forexpansion and ideological dominance of capitalism for USA andcommunism for USSR into the world. They provided support to theopposing sides of nationalistic movements which included firearms andmilitary training in order to lure them into their ideologies.
Vietnamwas at the center stage of one of the superpower dominating with theUS supporting the south, while the Russian supported the north whichresulted in massive deaths.
Thewar broke out in 1954 with Ho Chi raiding French supported EmperorBao. Ho chi a communist defeated the French forces and took over theNorth. Consequent Geneva treaties split the Vietnam into north underHo Chi and Bao in the south. Anticommunist Deim overthrew Bao. Withthe intensifying support of opposing sides by the two superpowers USsupported south and Soviet the North. Many casualties over 3 millionwere reported. Many US troops were directly involved in the warsupported by US presidents even after the death of Deim.
UnitedStates, joined the cold war to combat the increasingly expansionisttrend of the Soviet Union in Europe especially Greece and turkey. In1947, the Trumandoctrinewas adopted to free the people of Europe from subjugation from armedminority and external powers and also offered support to allcountries threatened by the Soviet Union through the Marshallplan.He also signed the National Security Amendment Act in 1949 whichcreated CIA, NSC and unified defense department aimed at combatingcommunism and increased military spending.
Thesame year, NATO was formed to where USA allied itself to WesternEurope countries. During Eisenhower’s regime, military spending wascut down and increased USA nuclear superiority. He also adopted themassiveretaliationto any Soviet aggression. President John F. Kennedy in 1962 usednaval blockade to stop nuclear weapon facility in Cuba. In 1973president Nixon met with fellow Soviet leaders to discuss StrategicArms Limitation Talks (SALT 1 agreement). In 1979 President JimmyCarter entered into SALT II talks to still prevent the arms race.After Carter, President Regan embarked on nuclear armament programsafter soviet invaded Afghanistan.
There were mass casualtiestotaling to about 3 million dead and dire economic, humanitarian andinfrastructural crisis.
Question 2,Discussion of the End of Cold War
Withenormous spending on military and soaring economic growth, the SovietUnion was in a blink of collapse and so Mikhail put on measures tocut military spending to fund more profitable sectors. With thesereforms President Regan lured him into diplomacy to avoid Sovietcollapse the two signed intermediate range nuclear forces in 1987which removed all nuclear. George Bush further completed the end ofcold war with Mikhail Gorbachev in 1989.
Reaganadministration reversed the détente policy after the Soviets invadedAfghanistan and came up with new policies like reopening theB1-bomber program that previous regime had stopped and MX missiles.He authorized deployment of missile in Germany by NATO. He came upwith the Strategic Defense Initiative that would use both ground andspace to protect Americans from nuclear missiles.
TheSoviets began to rethink of measures to contain the US-china peaceand diplomatic agreements. They took aggressive steps against chinacutting out aids and trade links.
PresidentMikhail’s economic reforms were to undercut military spending andfund more viable and profitable sectors of the economy.
Nationalistsopposed to the radical changes made by Mikhail attempted a botchedcoup. This and the high level of unemployment led to many nationalistand religious leaders in individual Soviet Union countries to calldissolution of the USSR.