Chronic Kidney Disease

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ChronicKidney Disease

Chronickidney disease

Chronickidney disease refers to a gradual loss of kidney function. It ischaracterized by decreased functioning of the kidney. It is estimatedthat over 26 million Americans have chronic kidney disease, while anda significant population is at risk. Since the disease progressslowly with no or insignificant clinical manifestation, earlydetection before progression to critical levels can reduce the riskof kidney failure and increase survival rates. Chronic kidney diseaseis associated with increased risk of heart diseases, weak bones andultimately results into disability (National Kidney Foundation, nd).


Inthe early stages of the disease, there are few or no signs andsymptoms. This is because there is no significant impairment of thekidney functioning. Thus, patient in these stages are asymptomaticand may have no clinical manifestations. For example, they willprobably test negative for glomerular filtration rates and are notlikely to experience clinically significant disruption of theelectrolytic or endocrine balance. As the disease progresses, someclinically significant manifestations are likely to be emerge. Forexample, a decline in glomerular filtration rate may suggest anadvanced case of chronic kidney disease. In advanced stages, multipletoxins starts accumulating in the body as the functioning of thekidney is impaired resulting into uremic manifestations. Otherclinical manifestations may include metabolic acidosis resulting intodecreased body mass and muscle weakness, anemia and heart diseases.These manifestations are likely to reach end stage renal diseaseuremia in advanced stages (Buttaro et al, 2013).


Chronickidney disease has a variety of clinical presentations, which isinfluenced by the stage of the condition as well as other factors.Therefore, there are several medical procedure and tests that arenecessary in the differential diagnosis of the disease. This includesblood test to determine the level of urea and other wastes in theblood and urine test to identify cases of abnormalities in thecontents. Imaging tests such as ultrasound can be used to check thestructure of the kidney. More advanced tests may include removing atissue sample from the kidney through biopsy for laboratory analysis(Buttaro et al, 2013). It is also important to look at the history ofthe patient as well as risk factors, which may include family historyof kidney diseases, cases of diabetes and hypertension, race andlifestyle (Adams et al, 2011).


Generally,chronic kidney disease has no cure. However, depending on the causeof the disease, there are there are several treatment and managementoptions that can be undertaken. Treatment of chronic kidney disease,especially in late stages involves controlling adverse symptoms toreduce risk of disability and complications and slowdown the progressof the disease. Therefore, the management and medication depends onthe symptoms. Some of the treatment and medication may includemanaging high blood pressure, lowering blood cholesterol levels andtreatment of anemia. Management may also include supplements such ascalcium and vitamin D and reduced protein intake. Advanced cases ofmay require dialysis or kidney transplant (Buttaro et al, 2013).

Roleof patient factors

Althoughany individual is at a risk of developing kidney disease, there arepatient factors that impacts on the risk as well as progress of thedisease (Assadi, 2010). According to National Kidney Foundation (nd),individuals who have high blood pressure or diabetes have a higherrisk of developing the disease. Family history of kidney diseasesalso suggests an increased risk. Additionally, there are racialfactors that play an important role in the development of thedisease. For example, statistics indicates that African American,Hispanics and Asian Americans are a higher risk of developing chronickidney disease. Elderly individuals above the age of 65 years are ata higher risk of developing chronic kidney disease. Diet is also animportant risk factor in the development of the disease. Poor dietwith limited intakes of fruits and vegetables, resulting intoincreased risk of obesity has also been associated with increasedrisk of chronic heart disease. The risk of the disease is alsoinfluenced by lifestyle factors such as tobacco smoking, lack ofphysical activity and unhealthy eating habits (Buttaro et al, 2013).

Over26 million Americans are affected by chronic kidney disease which ischaracterized by a decline in kidney functioning. In the earlystages, the disease has little or no symptoms, but progressively andslowly becomes a life threatening condition. There are severaldiagnosis tests that can be conduction on a patient, which includesblood test, blood test, ultrasound, and kidney tissue analysis.Treatment of chronic kidney illness mainly involves management of thesymptoms. Studies indicates that patient factors such as race, familyhistory and other terminal conditions play an important role in thedevelopment, diagnosis and treatment of the disease.


Adams,D., de Jonge, R., van der Cammen, T., Zietse, R., &amp Hoorn, E. J.(2011). “Acute kidney injury in patients presenting withhyponatremia”. Journalof Nephrology,24(6), 749–755.

Assadi,F. (2010). “Hypomagnesemia: An evidence-based approach to clinicalcases”. Iranian Journalof Kidney Diseases,4(1), 13–19.

Buttaro,T. M., Trybulski, J., Polgar Bailey, P., &amp Sandberg-Cook, J.(2013). Primarycare: A collaborative practice (4thed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

NationalKidney Foundation.(n.d.). Retrieved from

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