CHEMICAL PRODUCT 3
Production process of soap
The process described in this paper is the one used to produce soap.Soap is produced through a process called saponification and itinvolves various chemical processes and reactions in order to produceand other detergents. It is worth stating that soap is a salt and itis made through a reaction between an acid and a base in the processcalled saponification (Dunn, 2010). Soap is made through mixingsodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide which are bases with fattyacids. The fatty acids are combined with glycerol to formtriglycerides. These are formed of three fatty acids and oneglycerol. The fatty acids are separated from the glycerol and theyreact with the sodium or the potassium hydroxide to form soap.
The glycerol is an essential element in soap and it is what iscommonly known as glycerin in soap. It is worth noting that theprocess produces heat as a byproduct hence making this processexothermic. The sodium hydroxide or the potassium hydroxides used arealways in aqueous form in order to facilitate the reaction process(Dunn, 2010). Although the chemical process used to make soap islargely known as saponification, it is worth noting that the chemicalname for the process is alkaline hydrolysis of esters. It isessential to state that all forms of soaps are formed as suspensions.In order to precipitate the soap from the suspension, the normal saltis added to the suspension (Dunn, 2010). This process has come to beknown as salting out the soap. Every soap molecule made has the polarhead and the non-polar tail. The polar head is hydrophilic while thenon-polar tale is hydrophobic. It is worth, lastly, to mention thatthere are two major types of soaps that can be produced through thisprocess namely the hard and the soft soap depending on the alkalineused.
Dunn, K. M. (2010). Scientific soap making: Thechemistry of the cold process. Farmville, VA: Clavicula Press.