Caffeine Supplements

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CAFFEINE SUPPLEMENTS 1

Beck, T. W., Housh,T. J., Malek, M. H., Mielke, M., &amp Hendrix, R. (2008). The acuteeffects of a caffeine-containing supplement on bench press strengthand time to running exhaustion. The Journal of Strength &ampConditioning Research, 22(5), 1654-1658.

The authors conducted an inquiry into the acute effects ofcaffeine-containing supplement on repeated bench press strength andto running exhaustion. The results indicated that the caffeinesupplement had no effect on the bench press strength. The acuteeffects of caffeine are under the influence of the training statusand the relative intensity of task performed by the athlete.

According to the authors, there is insufficient information on howthese factors affect the effectiveness of caffeine in ergogeniceffects. The information in the article is useful in discussing thefactors that may influence the ergogenic effects.

Brown, S. J., Brown,J., &amp Foskett, A. (2013). The Effects of Caffeine on RepeatedSprint Performance in Team Sport Athletes–A Meta-Analysis–. SportScience Review, 22(1-2), 25-32.

The article indicates that empirical studies show the ergogeniceffects of caffeine in intense activities like sprinting. However,there is little meta-analysis data that exist for similar studies.Data from repeated sprint activities indicated that no ergogeniceffect attributable to caffeine ingestion. The available evidencefrom research does not support ergogenic effect for caffeine inrepeated performances in the athletes.

The conclusions of the research are instrumental in makingcomparisons with the other empirical studies that indicates there isa significant ergogenic effect after ingesting caffeine.

Burke, L. M.(2008). Caffeine and sports performance. Applied Physiology,Nutrition, and Metabolism, 33(6), 1319-1334.

The author notes that most athletes consider using caffeine beforeengaging in enduring activities. Most of the studies conclude thatthe use of caffeine stimulates the muscles and the central nervoussystem. According to the author, athletes obtain maximum benefitswhen they use it in controlled amounts. Also, he notes that caffeineis effective when use in high-intensity activities lasting betweenone and two minutes.

The article is a primary reference for the appropriateness ofcaffeine in high-intensity activities that last for a short periodrather than when used in lengthy activities.

Desbrow, B.,Biddulph, C., Devlin, B., Grant, G. D., Anoopkumar-Dukie, S., &ampLeveritt, M. D. (2012). The effects of different doses of caffeine onendurance cycling time trial performance. Journal of sportssciences, 30(2), 115-120.

The researchers conducted research to investigate the effects of twodifferent doses of caffeine on endurance during trial performances inmale athletes. The two doses include 3 and 6 milligrams per kilogram.The article concludes that there was no significance difference inperformance between the authors who ingested the two doses. Theingested caffeine in the different amounts resulted in fairly similarresults.

The author agrees with the findings of Spriet (2014) in his articleExercise and sports performance with low doses of caffeine. Itprovides information on the need to use low doses of caffeine sinceacute doses do not exhibit a significant increase in performance.

Goldstein, E. R.,Ziegenfuss, T., Kalman, D., Kreider, R., Campbell, B., Wilborn, C. &ampWildman, R. (2010). International society of sports nutritionposition stand: caffeine and performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr,7(1), 5.

The authors indicate that the conventional knowledge in the societyis that caffeine improves body performance and researchers have usedempirical studies to affirm this belief. Caffeine is effective inimproving the performance of athletes especially when take in lowdosages. A further increase in dosage does not result in an increaseperformance. The authors also provide that caffeine is more effectivewhen consume in anhydrous state them when consumed in coffee.Caffeine also enhances vigilance when an individual is taking part inlengthy activities that deprives one’s of sleep. The article alsoterms it as n important supplement during time bound activities thatrequire intensive engagement.

The authors agree with Sokmen et al. (2010) in their article Caffeineuse in Sports: Considerations for the Athlete that low doses ofcaffeine are effective as high does. The piece of work providesinsight into the various importance of caffeine in athleticactivities.

Gonzalez, A. M.,Hoffman, J. R., Wells, A. J., Mangine, G. T., Townsend, J. R.,Jajtner, A. R., &amp Bohner, J. D. (2015). Effects of Time-ReleaseCaffeine Containing Supplement on Metabolic Rate, GlycerolConcentration and Performance. Journal of sports science &ampmedicine, 14(2), 322.

The authors compared caffeine pharmacokinetics, concentrations ofglycerol, the rate o metabolism and performance after the ingestionof caffeine supplement containing TR-CAF and a caffeine capsulecontaining Placebo. The average body reaction significantly increasedwhen the participants ingested TR-CAF compared with when theyingested placebo containing caffeine. Although the TR-CAF showeddistinct pharmacokinetics effects on t erection time, it does notalter glycerol concentration and other metabolic measures.

The authors use a similar approach use by Tarnopolsky (2010) in thearticle Caffeine and Creatine use in Sport in testing thepharmacological effects of caffeine performance. The authors`work provides information on the most appropriate caffeineconcentration for optimal performance.

Jacobson, B. H.,Weber, M. D., Claypool, L., &amp Hunt, L. E. (1992). Effect ofcaffeine on maximal strength and power in élite male athletes.British journal of sports medicine, 26(4), 276-280.

The authors start y outlining that improved performance has beenattributed to the use of caffeine supplements in elite athletes. Theauthors sought to understand the effects of caffeine on strength andpower of the knee extensor and flexors by engaging 20 athletes in theactivity. The research concludes that caffeine can favorably affectsome strength, measurement in males with highly resistance training.However, its effectiveness is under the influence of the type offiber in the muscles, motivation and sensitivity to caffeine.

The article is informative on the factors that influence theeffectiveness of caffeine supplements in athletes increasedperformance.

Lee, C. L., Lin, J.C., &amp Cheng, C. F. (2012). Effect of creatine plus caffeinesupplements on time to exhaustion during an incremental maximumexercise. European Journal of Sport Science, 12(4),338-346.

The authors investigated the effects of ingesting high amounts ofcaffeine after taking creatine supplements in a cycling activity.Twelve males participated in the activity, and the researchersmeasured their exhaustion after the activity. The article concludesthat a single dose of caffeine ingested by an athlete after a takingcreatine did not have any negative effects of the interaction ofcaffeine and creatine. The intake of the twp supplements at differentintervals delayed exhaustion.

The article is a reference to the practices the improved theperformed of the supplements in the body. When writing about the bestpractices that athletes may considers, taking creatine beforecaffeine may delay exhaustion.

Machado, M.,Antunes, W. D., Tamy, A. L. M., Azevedo, P. G., Barreto, J. G., &ampHackney, A. C. (2009). Effect of a single dose of caffeinesupplementation and intermittent-interval exercise on muscle damagemarkers in soccer players. Journal of Exercise Science &ampFitness, 7(2), 91-97.

The author conducted a study to determine the effects of caffeine onthe number of white cells and the muscles on soccer players. Theeffects of caffeine on the immune system is one the shallowlyresearched areas, and there is little literature on empiricalstudies. There are few articles that address the effect of caffeineon the body immunity. They conclude that white blood cells and muscledamage markers increase after intense activity. However, acutecaffeine supplements have no influence on the immune responses andthe integrity of muscle cells.

The authors’ work will help in discussing the limits of the role ofcaffeine in the body. It will be a reference in dispelling the myththat caffeine increases body’s immunity.

Malek, M. H., Housh,T. J., Coburn, J. W., Beck, T. W., Schmidt, R. J., Housh, D. J., &ampJohnson, G. O. (2006). Effects of eight weeks of caffeinesupplementation and endurance training on aerobic fitness and bodycomposition. The Journal of Strength &amp Conditioning Research,20(4), 751-755.

The authors initiated an inquiry to determine the effects of eightweeks of using caffeine and intensive training on the aerobic fitnessand body composition. 36 students participated in the study.According to the results of the study, acute use of caffeine does nothave significant ergogenic effects. It also did not show significantchanges in body weight and composition.

The article is a reference to providing empirical evidence on theeffects of caffeine on body fitness during aerobic exercises. It willalso be a primary reference when discussing the effects of caffeineon body composition.

O`Connor, P. J.,Motl, R. W., Broglio, S. P., &amp Ely, M. R. (2004). Dose-dependenteffect of caffeine on reducing leg muscle pain during cyclingexercise is unrelated to systolic blood pressure. Pain,109(3), 291-298.

The researchers embarked on a study to investigate the effects ofingesting two doses of caffeine on leg muscle pain and blood pressurewhen participating in moderate intensity cycling activities. Thearticle outlines that caffeine increased the resting systolicpressure, but the pressure was not maintained during the activity.They conclude that caffeine ingestion has a significant influence onleg muscle pain during moderate activities.

The article is a primary reference for the effects of specific dosecaffeine on muscle and blood pressure.

Smolka, O., &ampKumstát, M. (2015). Caffeine Intake Enhances Endurance Performancein Sub-elite but not in Elite Athletes. Annales Kinesiologiae,5(2).

The Authors conducted an inquiry to determine the effects of caffeineo the maximal power output in elite and sub-elite athletes. Theauthors found out that the intake of caffeine at recommending levelsdid not show a significant difference in their maxim power output.They refer to the Borg scale that they used to measure the maximalpower output in the athletes as an inappropriate method to test theeffects of caffeine on enduring activities.

The piece of work is informative on the effects of caffeine onprofessional activities like cycling. Although researchers might usevarious instruments to measure the effects of caffeine of the maximapower out of athletes engaging in enduring activities, the Borg Scalemay not give credible results according to the two scientists.

Sökmen, B.,Armstrong, L. E., Kraemer, W. J., Casa, D. J., Dias, J. C., Judelson,D. A., &amp Maresh, C. M. (2008). Caffeine use in Sports:Considerations for the Athlete. The Journal of Strength &ampConditioning Research, 22(3), 978-986.

The authors start by acknowledging the efforts of many scientists onthe effects of caffeine on the body functioning for athletes engagingin enduring activities. However, they note that only a few studiesincite the considerations.

According to the article, lower doses can be as effective as highdoses during intensive performances without any negativecoincidences. The authors provide information that after a period ofinactivity, the intake of caffeine in low amounts before performancecan have similar ergogenic effects with a high intake. To avoidtolerance, athletes should take caffeine in low amounts. Athletesshould also consider their body size, age, and gender because theyaffect the level of tolerance.

The piece of work is informative to the final project since it takesan approach that many researchers overlook that involvesconsiderations that people should take when taking caffeine. Whentaken in the correct amounts and at the right time, even smallamounts will give desirable outcomes just like large amounts.

Spriet, L. L.(2014). Exercise and sport performance with low doses of caffeine.Sports medicine, 44(2), 175-184.

According to the authors, researchers have been conducting studies onthe effects of caffeine body process, especially during intensiveactivities. Most of the scholars concentrate on the effects ofmoderate caffeine intake. Moderate doses of caffeine havesignificant effects on the body exercises with some few undesirableeffects. Low doses of caffeine exhibit similar results with excessiveintakes. The authors agree with the findings of Sokmen et al. (2010)in their article dubbed Caffeine use in Sports: Considerations forthe Athlete, who found out that there was significance differencebetween using acute and low doses of caffeine.

The article informs that low doses of caffeine do not alter theperipheral body response to intense exercises. Also, it is areference when discussing the effects of low dosage vigilance,alertness, and the side effects.

Tarnopolsky, M. A.(2010). Caffeine and creatine use in sport. Annals of Nutritionand Metabolism, 57(Suppl. 2), 1-8.

The author conducted a study on the pharmacological and potentialmechanisms of caffeine and creatine and their use in sports. Caffeineand creatine are two of the most used compounds by sports men. As theauthor provides, the two have never been considered as doping agentsdespite their ergogenic capacity.

The authors study found out that caffeine taken before or duringendurance exercises has a direct effect on performance. It stimulatesthe central nervous system and muscles. It is an effective supplementto increase body functioning. The author concludes that caffeine andcreatine are ergogenic acids and there is no reason for theirsimultaneous use in sport specific activity.

The article is informative to the final paper and it is a primaryreference for the effects of caffeine and creatine on the muscles andcentral nervous system.

References

Beck, T. W., Housh,T. J., Malek, M. H., Mielke, M., &amp Hendrix, R. (2008). The acuteeffects of a caffeine-containing supplement on bench press strengthand time to running exhaustion. The Journal of Strength &ampConditioning Research, 22(5), 1654-1658.

Brown, S. J., Brown,J., &amp Foskett, A. (2013). The Effects of Caffeine on RepeatedSprint Performance in Team Sport Athletes–A Meta-Analysis–. SportScience Review, 22(1-2), 25-32.

Burke, L. M.(2008). Caffeine and sports performance. Applied Physiology,Nutrition, and Metabolism, 33(6), 1319-1334.

Desbrow, B.,Biddulph, C., Devlin, B., Grant, G. D., Anoopkumar-Dukie, S., &ampLeveritt, M. D. (2012). The effects of different doses of caffeine onendurance cycling time trial performance. Journal of sportssciences, 30(2), 115-120.

Goldstein, E. R.,Ziegenfuss, T., Kalman, D., Kreider, R., Campbell, B., Wilborn, C. &ampWildman, R. (2010). International society of sports nutritionposition stand: caffeine and performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr,7(1), 5.

Gonzalez, A. M.,Hoffman, J. R., Wells, A. J., Mangine, G. T., Townsend, J. R.,Jajtner, A. R., &amp Bohner, J. D. (2015). Effects of Time-ReleaseCaffeine Containing Supplement on Metabolic Rate, GlycerolConcentration and Performance. Journal of sports science &ampmedicine, 14(2), 322.

Jacobson, B. H.,Weber, M. D., Claypool, L., &amp Hunt, L. E. (1992). Effect ofcaffeine on maximal strength and power in élite male athletes.British journal of sports medicine, 26(4), 276-280.

Lee, C. L., Lin, J.C., &amp Cheng, C. F. (2012). Effect of creatine plus caffeinesupplements on time to exhaustion during an incremental maximumexercise. European Journal of Sport Science, 12(4),338-346.

Machado, M.,Antunes, W. D., Tamy, A. L. M., Azevedo, P. G., Barreto, J. G., &ampHackney, A. C. (2009). Effect of a single dose of caffeinesupplementation and intermittent-interval exercise on muscle damagemarkers in soccer players. Journal of Exercise Science &ampFitness, 7(2), 91-97.

Malek, M. H., Housh,T. J., Coburn, J. W., Beck, T. W., Schmidt, R. J., Housh, D. J., &ampJohnson, G. O. (2006). Effects of eight weeks of caffeinesupplementation and endurance training on aerobic fitness and bodycomposition. The Journal of Strength &amp Conditioning Research,20(4), 751-755.

O`Connor, P. J.,Motl, R. W., Broglio, S. P., &amp Ely, M. R. (2004). Dose-dependenteffect of caffeine on reducing leg muscle pain during cyclingexercise is unrelated to systolic blood pressure. Pain,109(3), 291-298.

Smolka, O., &ampKumstát, M. (2015). Caffeine Intake Enhances Endurance Performancein Sub-elite but not in Elite Athletes. Annales Kinesiologiae,5(2).

Sökmen, B.,Armstrong, L. E., Kraemer, W. J., Casa, D. J., Dias, J. C., Judelson,D. A., &amp Maresh, C. M. (2008). Caffeine use in Sports:Considerations for the Athlete. The Journal of Strength &ampConditioning Research, 22(3), 978-986.

Spriet, L. L.(2014). Exercise and sport performance with low doses of caffeine.Sports medicine, 44(2), 175-184.

Tarnopolsky, M. A.(2010). Caffeine and creatine use in sport. Annals of Nutritionand Metabolism, 57(Suppl. 2), 1-8.

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