Annotated Bibliography

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ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 5

AnnotatedBibliography

AnnotatedBibliography

Hughes,D., Rodriguez, J., Smith, E. P., Johnson, D. J., Stevenson, H. C., &ampSpicer, P. (2006). Parents` ethnic-racial socialization practices: areview of research and directions for future study. Developmentalpsychology, 42(5), 747.

Theauthors in this article researched and explained the nature of ethnicsocialization and its impact on children’s performance in school. Their main focus is the antecedents of ethnic socialization on thecharacteristics of parents and children and its impact on well-beingand development of children. Their findings indicate that empiricalresearch on Latin American parenting shows that authoritativeparenting is either evident or implicit. Lain American parents useauthoritarian parenting as an expression of their ethnic identity. Ineffect, it has significant impacts on the ethnic identity ofchildren, their self-esteem, academic achievement, psychosocialwell-being, and their ability to cope with racial discrimination. Thearticle effectively compliments other academic sources because it hasa broad discussion about ethnic socialization, which in essenceillustrates the uniqueness of ethnic minorities such as LatinAmericans in terms of parenting styles. For purposes of the intendedresearch, the authors’ findings about the ethnic socialization ofchildren on their school achievement and psycho-social well-being arevital. The latter is closely related to the former because childrenneed a stable psychological and psycho-social environment toconcentrate on their classwork and other developmental activities inschool. The article also reveals the limitations of literatureconcerning the subject, which sets the basis of recommendations forfuture research.

Dewar,G. (n.d). Authoritarian parenting: How does it affect the kids?

Dewarexplains the nature of Latin American parenting in regard to theirculture. According to the author, authoritarian parenting has somepositive effects such as instilling the desirable behavior inchildren. Latin American parents believe in the traditional ways ofbringing up children where they have to follow the morals of thesociety and obey the elderly. Through strict observance of culturaland familial values of their Latin origins, they also set standardsof school performance in a way that creates compulsion forschool-going children to live up to their expectations. Dewar alsofinds that authoritative parenting such as the one used by LatinAmerican parents has negative effects such as making children lessresourceful, degrading children’s social skills, and killing theirself-esteem. He concludes that children from authoritarian familiestend to achieve less in school than those with accommodative norms. Dewar’s findings are vital for research pertaining to the effect ofparenting styles on children’s school performance. He directlycompares authoritarian parenting, which is characteristic of Latinculture with other accommodative parenting styles in Americancultures. The details in Dewar findings are critical in building asubstantive argument for accommodative parenting as an alternative toauthoritarian parenting as practiced by the Latin American parents.

Leal-Soto,F., Onate, C. B., Ulloa, P. S., &ampMaluenda, J. T. (2013).FAMILYFACTORS, ACHIEVEMENT GOALS AND ACADEMIC MOTIVATION IN LATIN AMERICANSTUDENTS.European Scientific Journal, 9(19).

Theauthors examine parental socialization styles and their effects onstudents. The socialization styles under focus are authoritarian,authoritative, indulgent, and permissive. As the authors observe,each of the styles has far reaching implications on the level of thestudent motivation, which then affects the level their performance inschool. They find that Latin American parents use authoritarianparenting styles. In their day-to-day interactions with children,they exhibit verbal messages that are emotionally disapproving,therefore, demotivating students. Furthermore, the authors foundthat the type of socialization style that parents use affects thekinds of goals they set in their studies. The article is relevantbecause it constitutes research that was conducted right in LatinAmerica. Thus, it has original information in terms of thepeculiarity of Latin American culture in terms of parenting. Thesefindings are vital in building a multi-faceted body of literature inthe research that explores different student performance factors thatare vulnerable to the authoritarian parental socialization style ofLatin American parents. Furthermore, the authors articulate differentparental socialization styles in other cultures to make a reasonablecomparison.

Steinberg,L., Lamborn, S. D., Dornbusch, S. M., &amp Darling, N. (1992).Impact of parenting practices on adolescent achievement:Authoritative parenting, school involvement, and encouragement tosucceed. Child development, 63(5), 1266-1281.

Theauthors examine effect of authoritative parenting and parentalindulgence in schooling to the overall performance of students. Although research does not directly focus on Latin America, it servesas a vital resource in terms of comparing the findings of otherauthors with these findings. The authors engaged 6,400 adolescentchildren between fourteen and eighteen years. They found thatauthoritative parenting through interventions such as grantingchildren psychological autonomy and a high level of acceptanceenhances school performance among children and also encourages themto engage with their teachers and parents. There is a strong caveatto the authors’ findings: authoritative parenting can only causesuccess in the context of a home environment that has authoritativeparenting ideals. The article is a significant source of facts onparenting because it makes it plausible to consider authoritativeparenting as effective over authoritarian parenting that is common inLatin American families. The best way to draw the comparison is havean independent research material that explores alternative parenting.The authors of the article prove resourceful in doing bring the factsto extensive focus.

Spera,C. (2005). A review of the relationship among parenting practices,parenting styles, and adolescent school achievement. EducationalPsychology Review, 17(2), 125-146.

Thearticle is similar to Steinberg, Lamborn, Dornbusch, and Darling’sfindings on the impact of authoritative parenting on the schoolperformance of adolescents. However, Spera examines specificparenting practices that affect the performance students in school byreviewing different literature about the subject. He uses empiricalresearch that finds that parental involvement and monitoring arevital predictors of student performance and achievement levels.Interestingly, the author also finds several strong factors in theliterature he examines that point out to Hispanic parents such asLatinos. There is a unanimous agreement among the authors examinedby Spera that authoritative parenting influences high achievementamong adolescents, but declines as children move into adulthood. Thedecline occurs simultaneously with decreasing parental involvement aschildren grow into adulthood. The article improves the research bysingling out Steinberg and Darling as the authors that provide aprescriptive model of parenting that would correct the discrepanciesthat affect Latin American parents in the United States. Possibly,the model could be used to guide parents whose parenting practicesare largely informed by cultural practices. The findings importantlycreate a rationale to prove further research on the possible reasonsfor reduced parental involvement as children grow out of adolescence.

References

Dewar,G. (n.d). Authoritarian parenting: How does it affect the kids?.

Hughes,D., Rodriguez, J., Smith, E. P., Johnson, D. J., Stevenson, H. C., &ampSpicer, P. (2006). Parents` ethnic-racial socialization practices: areview of research and directions for future study. Developmentalpsychology, 42(5), 747.

Leal-Soto,F., Onate, C. B., Ulloa, P. S., &ampMaluenda, J. T. (2013).FAMILYFACTORS, ACHIEVEMENT GOALS AND ACADEMIC MOTIVATION IN LATIN AMERICANSTUDENTS.European Scientific Journal, 9(19).

Steinberg,L., Lamborn, S. D., Dornbusch, S. M., &amp Darling, N. (1992).Impact of parenting practices on adolescent achievement:Authoritative parenting, school involvement, and encouragement tosucceed. Child development, 63(5), 1266-1281.

Spera,C. (2005). A review of the relationship among parenting practices,parenting styles, and adolescent school achievement. EducationalPsychology Review, 17(2), 125-146.

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