Anaerobic Technologies

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AnaerobicTechnologies

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Tableof Contents

Abstract 2

Background 3

The Anaerobic Technology 4

How Anaerobic Technology Works 5

Anaerobic Waste-water Treatment in (sub-) tropic regions 5

Bio-resource Technology 7

Anaerobic digestion of brewery wastewater 8

on the anaerobic technology used for Brewery wastewater treatment. 10

Article summary for case study on anaerobic technology 11

Conclusion 12

References 13

Abstract

Thisarticle highlights major processes towards waste control and aerobicdigestion as a major step towards waste elimination. In the currentworld, energy has become a major component of lifestyle, there is,therefore, a need for newer sources that are eco-friendly andrenewable because climate changes are one of the biggest challengesto mankind. Many countries around the globe have so far initiateddistribution and production of several renewable technologies to savethe energy crisis. Among the various technologies invented theaerobic digestion technology has been proven one of the most viablesolutions because of the availability of biomass. Another major issueis the elimination is reduction of greenhouse gasses and this issuecan be solved by anaerobic digestion technology (1kg of bio methaneis equivalent to the decrease of 25 kg carbon (iv) oxide) whichautomatically comes with major advantages like replacement of fossilfuel, or generally eliminate energy waste treatment plant, reductionof methane emissions in various landfills, and the reduction of theindustrially produced chemical fertilizers.

Inaerobic digestion apart from its numerous merits, various constraintsare also associated with it. Most of them range from low largedigester design and hydraulic retention, very lower levels of gaseousproduction from the gaseous residue. This paper highlights thevarious critical techniques that can help eliminate wastes throughthe use of aerobic technology that has already been scientificallyproved to be essential and effective.

Keywords:WasteControl, Aerobic Digestion, eco-friendly

Background

Anaerobictechnologies are among the leading command in the application ofwaste treatment as well as their management. It is through anaerobictechnologies that the anaerobic waste products are well taken care ofin the society for a conducive and a healthy environment. The wastedisposal is done in a professional manner for the purpose ofaccountability.

Theprocess is very effective and the fact that it is inexpensive toundertake makes it more reliable. The technology is set to replacethe current systems or even be used together for the achievement ofthe best result. Anaerobic technology has greatly advanced and hascurrently gained acceptance in numerous societies due to itseffectiveness.

Theprocess is applicable in widely for example municipal, agricultureand commercial sectors. In the municipal application, the process canserve both bigger and smaller communities. This is due to itsflexibility regarding the operations. The waste disposal is wellmanaged in any category of community hence facilitating itsacceptance.

Inthe agricultural sector, the process can treat waste products fromvarious farms more effectively. This applies to any farm whether itis small or large. The process ensures that the waste effluents arewell disposed of in the waterways safely to avoid pollution of theenvironment. Commercially, the process takes care of any virtualorganic wastes from the industries. It aids in the safe disposal ofindustrial wastes so as to protect the environment from beingcontaminated by the harmful waste materials.

Anaerobictechnology has numerous advantages that make it more reliableascompared to any other waste treatment process. For example, itsconstruction construction cost is low, and more importantly, itrequires low maintenance than any other process. This advantageenables anyone to make use of the process without strain. Inaddition, it conserves space hence giving room for the constructionof other important facilities, and again it conserves energy thusminimizing cost.

TheAnaerobic Technology

Anaerobictechnology became popular when the techniques in organic wastedisposal became more efficient in the 1970s, and since then it hasbecome successful when used in both small and large industriesproducing different amounts of waste. The technology contains areactor that is sealed and in through its process setting there is acontinuous flow of water to make it function more effectively. Theprocess is considered anaerobic since there is the absence of oxygenand light. However, if in any case oxygen and light were present,then it could be considered aerobic. The chamber also containsdifferent bacteria that digest varying organic materials.Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are digested by different bacteriasince they are of different levels.

Themixed materials in the reactor are automatically adjusted by thebacterial medium for the bacteria to perform its function easily andeffectively. Wastes containing fats are mostly predominated in thereactor as well as those containing starch. The only difference isthat the starch-based is predominated by the carbohydrate-consumingbacteria.

Fromthe reactor, the effluent is mostly pure water despite the kind ofinput used. Sludge is also not left behind as a byproduct by thebacteria this is a factor that ensures safe disposal of the wasteproducts. It leads to the protection of the environment hence makingit healthier for use. Outside energy input is not required in thetechnology since the reactor does not contain moving parts. Thisfactor makes it cheaper to use since it does not require extra costto run the activities. The process also requires less human oversightfor it to run. The above factors make the anaerobic technology moreadvantageous than the traditional treatment of waste.

HowAnaerobic Technology Works

Thetechnology works in different steps that make it reliable. First,there is the anaerobic wastewater treatment used to convert affectedliquids into useful substances. There is also the balance of thechemical oxygen demand (COD) this is the process of measuring theorganic matter concentration so as to rectify the content.

Anotherstep is that of spectrum applications. The technology helps instabilizing sludge for instance in the municipal treatment firms. Italso works with an aim of sulfate reduction. This sulfate reductionprocess involves the use of sulfate-reducing bacteria that aids inthe conversion of sulfate to sulfide. There is also thede-nitrification process that helps in converting nitrate-pollutantsinto products that have a positive impact on the environment.

AnaerobicWastewater Treatment In (Sub-) Tropic Regions

Followingthe level of inappropriate waste disposal in the developingcountries, a clear research was done to eradicate the problem. Theuse of anaerobic technology was initiated so as to rectify themenace. The process does not involve the use of oxygen and lighthence the term anaerobic. The use of this technology aids in theconservation of the environment that creates a suitable workingspace. The technology has been installed in several developingcountries that enable them to advance into greater levels. Thesecountries include Brazil, Thailand, China, India, Taiwan, and Mexico.

Inthe technological process, the microbes degrade organic pollutants inthe wastewater to produce carbon dioxide and methane gas. Productionof methane is advantageous since it is a readily usable in theprocess and through it costs are minimized greatly. The process isonly viable under anaerobic conditions. The process also producesless percentage of sludge, unlike the traditional aerobic processes.It is also cheap to operate since there are no additional costs suchas that of aeration. This makes it more useful in the developingcountries since they may lack the extra cash to facilitate theadditional charges. These benefits have contributed to the successfuluse of the anaerobic technology in such countries.

Thetechnology is being applied worldwide with numerous plants beinginstalled in the past years and others still underway. The reason forall this is as a result of the increased demand of the technology bythe community. For instance, China has more than 600 reactorsinstalled that help in the treatment of wastewaters. These wastes aremostly from the poultry farms, breweries, sugar firms, and cattlefarms. In India, a total of 99 firms have installed the anaerobictechnology in their system all with an aim of eradicating wasterelease to the environment.

InPhilippines, at least, 22 industries have been constructed andutilize the anaerobic technology. The same case is in Brazil where atotal of 396 anaerobic reactors have been installed. The installationfrom the above-stated countries is a clear indication that thetechnology is highly accepted by individuals. This is as a result ofthe benefits that it has on the environment making it moreadvantageous.

Inconclusion, more than 1200 anaerobic plants have been put in placefor waste treatment worldwide. Among them, more that 40% of theseplants are set up in the developing countries since they are the oncefacing the challenge directly. The technology has helped in solvingthe said challenges therefor creating a clean environment for a humanstay.

Bio-resourceTechnology

Thearticle provides a review on the application of anaerobic membranebioreactors (AnMBR) technology that is used in the industrial wastewaters considering different aspects such as treatability andfilterability. AnMBR offers the best alternative for the treatment ofindustrial waste waters at extreme conditions such as hightemperatures, high salinity high suspended solids materials andtoxicity(Dereli, Ersan, Ozgun, Ozturk, Jeison, Zee, &ampLier, 1999).These conditions hinder the granulation and retention of biomass orreduce the biological activities. High anaerobic treatment ofindustrial wastewaters is a tested and proven technology that comeswith numerous advantages including high organic matters removalefficiency, energy recovery and excess sludge reduction.

Forthe high rate anaerobic treatment to succeed well, there should beslow growing methanogenic bacteria in the reactor. The threemechanisms that are always used for biomass retention are settling,granulation and attachment(Dereli, Et al, 1999). One of the recentdevelopments in the high rate anaerobic treatment technique is theuse of a membrane in the process of separation of biomass from theeffluent. Although AnMBR offers numerous advantages, the membranefouling poses one disadvantage for the application because it reducesthe flux due to the accumulation of organic and inorganic particles(Dereli, Et al, 1999). This problem can be eased through risingtemperatures due to the reduced viscosity of liquid at hightemperatures. A lower sludge viscosity implies that there are shearrates would be needed to obtain the same shear stress.

Moreover,granulation and bio-film formation that is required to retain thebiomass in high rate anaerobic systems is easily attained under thethermophilic conditions. The logic here is that the microbial growthrate and decay increase gradually with increase in temperatures(Dereli, Et al, 1999). A sludge retention time is completelyindependent of hydraulic retention time (HRT) hence it can easilycontrol in AnMBR compared to other kinds of anaerobic reactorsregardless of the sludge quality. High organic and short HRT can beapplied anMBR (Dereli, Et al, 1999). However, the OLR system is notan independent parameter but it ought to be evaluated together withSRT and the activity of the sludge.

AnMBRtechnique of treating the industrial wastewaters is more vulnerableto the inorganic fouling by the precipitate of calcium, sulfur andphosphorus than the aerobic elements. One thing that ought to benoted is that inorganic fouling should not be underestimated whentrying to treat complex wastewaters from the industries.

Inconclusion, AnMBR technique is considered as an important technologythat fills the gap that has existed between high rate anaerobictreatment systems and the conventional slurry digesters. Moreresearch and investigations need to be done to find out reasonablesolutions to common problems such as fouling and low flux that tendto hinder the application of AnMBR for industrial waste waterstreatment. There is still a wide gap between the design and operationof full-scale AnMBR.

AnaerobicDigestion Of Brewery Wastewater

Thearticle describes the operation of the pilot-scale anaerobic filterto treat brewery wastewater that contains approximately 600mg/l. Itis a law that every industry that produces waste materials such aswastewaters, affluent and gasses must take an initiative to treatthese wastes before releasing them into the environment (Williams,Schleet, &ampSchuler, 1999). The main purpose of this project was totest the anaerobic filter digestion process that was developed at CalPoly in the treatment of the wastewater from the SLO Brewery Company.Initially, the early development of anaerobic filter process was doneto treat food processing wastewater, wheat starch, sugar refinery andguar processing wastewater (Williams, Schleet, &ampSchuler, 1999).Since that time, more and more wastewater treatment of variousproducts process has been developed. The development of the anaerobictreatment of brewery wastewater came as a result of the problemencountered in the brewery industry. The main challenge in thisindustry is the biological stabilization of the brewery water.

Theratio of BOD to COD for brewery wastewater was estimated 0.6 to 400mg/l. The project, therefore, investigated the use of Cal Polyanaerobic filter system to organically stabilize the brewerywastewater in the production of the usable methane. Some of theobjectives of this project included modifying the pilot scaleattached film digest at Cal Poly for high rate anaerobic digestion(Williams, Schleet, &ampSchuler, 1999). Secondly, performingdigester starts up and operates it for ten weeks while increasing theloading rate. Thirdly, collect and analyze data from the digesteroperation and chemical testing. The pilot scale test describes thetest plan carried out by Cal Poly to evaluate anaerobic filterdigestion system regarding the effectiveness of the treatment of thebrewery wastewaters (Williams, Schleet, &ampSchuler, 1999). Themethodology that was used in this project was copied from themesophilic digestion of brewery wastewater. The first procedure inthe methodology was to move the skid-mounted pilot unit to the SLOBrewery site. It was designed to require minimal maintenance aspossible.

Regardingthe pilot scale anaerobic filter, the following conclusion wasreached at. First, typical brewery wastewater that contained 6000mg/lCOD was successfully treated using a fixed film anaerobic digesterprocessb36 degrees (Williams, Schleet, &ampSchuler, 1999). Gasproduction reached 2.8 cubic meters per day with 75% methane for abiogas of about 0.39cuic meters per kilogram per day. The stablecondition of the PH level was kept constant, and the effluent PH wasover 7.1 for the whole test.

On The Anaerobic Technology Used For Brewery Wastewater Treatment

TheConventional anaerobic digestion (AD) process is one of the commonlyused ways of achieving recovery of bioenergy from the spent biomassindustrial wastewater and other forms of wastes. Up flow Anaerobicsludge (UASB) reactor technology is an anaerobic digestion technologythat has of late become important for the energy needs through thetreatment of different types of wastewater.

Designand operation of an anaerobic digestion system are based on thefundamental knowledge of kinetics and stoichiometry of biologicalreactions. The methods used employed the use of a full-scale UASBreactor treatment for the wastewater. In series, pre-screened brewerywastewater and UASB reactor effluent that were ready for dischargeinto the sewer system were analyzed in the laboratory for performanceevaluation. The samples of brewery wastewater were analyzed todetermine alkalinity, pH, temperature, total chemical oxygen, amongother parameters.

Allthe methods that required the use of Spectrophotometer and AquakemGallery discrete autoanalyser involved the use of both reagent andsample blanks. The analytical tests that were done in triplicate byperforming a statistical analysis produced data that were used tocalculate the mean, ranges, and standard deviation.

Theresults showed that the removal efficiencies of both BOD and COD of80% and 78% indicate the conversion of organic matter in theindustrial wastewater to usable biogas with around 66% of methane andgood effluent composition. For efficient biological treatment,ortho-phosphorus and TON tests were measured in the settled brewerywastewater that had been collected. The findings indicate that theprediction of industrial-scale anaerobic reactor performance that isbased on UASB technology for treating brewery wastewater largelydepends on the estimated value of the parameters involved.

ArticleSummary For Case Study On Anaerobic Technology

Theoperational data from an anaerobic wastewater treatment plant(expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor) were analyzed beforeand after a defect with the solids separator. The results point to anew method that can be used for analysis of total volatile fattyacids (VFAs) was ideal as rapid, operational, onsite indicator ofreactor stability. Treatment of brewery wastewater is one of the mostcommon applications of high-rate anaerobic digestion (AD) ofwastewaters. To avoid overloading of the sewer, the treatment wasdone before discharging it into the sewer. The traditional anaerobictreatment has become expensive as a result of the power for aerationand high sludge yields.

Accordingto a survey carried out in the EU on the stability of anaerobicprocesses, the operating AD plants showed excess acidity and shockfrom the loads as a common cause. The use of reverse osmosis can beused to purify further the MBR-treated effluent so as to produce anultra-pure boiler feed water for cleaning. This process, is, however,not advisable for use in food production.

Atthe commissioning of the plant, a simple colorimetry-based VFA testkit was used in conducting the Hach LCK 365 method. It made itpossible to make comparisons between the performances of Ripley`sratio and VFA content for daily operational control of the rate ofloading. The results indicated that there was an increase in VFAtowards the end of year one. This shows the differences in stabilitybetween year one and two.

Thewastewater treatment has an automatic adjustment of pH andtemperature, the warm effluent, however, minimizes suchinterventions. In some circumstances, there is a great need formanual adjustments such as high buffer tank levels to avoid overload.The total VFA analysis using the new colometric test kit followed byRipley`s ratio is a simple monitoring technique that is suitable foroperational control and early warnings of instability for high-rateEGSB digesters. Conversion of COD to gas or pH was never an effectiveinstability test. Standard reporting of gas and liquid velocitiesassists in comparing losses of solid from gas surges or/and otherhydraulic perturbations that can be converted to gas. From theresults, there is a confirmation that there is a great need foreffluent buffering.

Conclusion

Inconclusion, the concept of energy regulation is a worldwidecommitment that can be used to make the earth a better place.Anaerobic waste control has become a major milestone in energyregulation the technology can be embraced with an intention topurify the environment especially water since it is a basic survivalfactor and has been intoxicated because of the excess wastes inrivers. Each country around the world has to invest much in thistechnology and encourage recycling as a step to make the world abetter place once again.

References

Williams,D Schleet, D &ampSchuler, A. (1999). Anaerobic Digestion of Brewerywastewater for pollution control, and energy. Bio resource.

Dereli,r., Ersan, M., Ozgun, H., Ozturk, I., Jeison, D., Zee, F &ampLier,J. (1999). “Potentials of anaerobicmembrane bioreactors to overcome treatmentLimitations induced byindustrial wastewaters.”Biosourcetechnology.

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